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-French gov't official
-sent to U.S. in 1830s to study American political and prison system
-wrote Democracy in America
Alexis de Tocqueville
What did Democracy in America focus on?
-equality of people and their political power
What the main issue in dividing the U.S.?
What was the south's view on slavery?
-supported it and saw slaves as property
Why did the South feel slavery was acceptable?(2)
- -Needed them for agricultural work
- -Religious/moral reasons
What was the North's view on slavery?
opposed slavery and saw Afr. Amer. and 2nd class people
Why did the North feel slavery was wrong?(2)
- -Gave south greater profits improving their economy
- -thought slavery was simply wrong
-the idea that political power belongs to the people
What groups did the Abolition Movement divide people into to?
-gradually, peacefully end slavery over time, using laws
-people who wanted a quick, violent end to slavery
Why did slavery in new land in West become a conflict?
-because this land was beyond the LA Territroy and MO Compromise
What did the Wilmot Provision state?
-that "neither slavery nor involumtary servitude shall ever exist in any part of the territory"
-Representative from PA that proposed Wilmot Provisio in 1846
What was the result of the Wilmot Provisio?
-failed to pass, but it showed deep political divisions between North and South caused by slavery
Why was the Free Soil Party formed?
-to oppose the spread of slavery into new lands in West
Who was the Democratic candidate in Election of 1848?
Who was the Whigs candidate in Election of 1848?
Who was the Free Soil Party candidate in Election of 1848?
Martin Van Buren
Who won election of 1848?
Zachary Taylor because Van Buren was a spoiler
Who proposed Compromise of 1850?
What caused Compromise of 1850? (2)
- -statehood for CA
- -slavery issue in land from Mexico
What did the Compromise of 1850 state? (5)
-divided land from Mexico into UT Territory and NM Territory (used Pop. Sov. to solve slavery issue
-banned slave trade in Washington, D.C.
-TX gave up land claims in NM in exchange for $$ support from fed. gov't
-new, stricter fugitive slave laws
How did Mexican Cession and the California Gold Rush add to sectional problems in U.S.? (2)
-californios opposed slavery (slavery illegal in CA when part of Mex.)
-most forty-niners had come from free states
-Senator from IL
-pushed Comp. of 1850 through Congress to get it passed
-became political leader
-nicknamed "The Little Giant"
What was Stephen Douglas' nickname?
"The Little Giant"
What did the Fugitive Slave Act do? (3)
-made it easier for slave catchers to go into Northern states to catch runaways
-escaped slaves didn't get a trail
-made it a crime to help slaves-OR-not help the slave catchers
How did the Fugitive Slave Act increase tensions and bad feelings between North and South?
- North: -disliked power of commissioners and their higher fees for returning slaves
- -disliked idea of a trial without a jury
liked ideas of Fugitive Slave Act
Who wrote Uncle Tom's Cabin?
Harriet Beecher Stowe
What did Uncle Tom's Cabin explain?
-talked about slaves as people, not property, and their cruel treatment they recieved from their masters
How did the North react to Uncle Tom's Cabin?
-gained a better understanding of slavery and helped them see slaves as real people
How did the South react to Uncle Tom's Cabin?
-were angered and felt it was an inaccurate portrayl of slavery
Who became President when Pres. Taylor died?
What caused Treaty of Kanagawa?
-Millard Fillmore sending Commodore Matthew Perry and U.S. Navy to Japan
Who was sent by Fillmore that ended up negotiating Treaty of Kanagawa?
Commodore Matthew Perry
What did the Treaty of Kanagawa do?
-opened diplomatic relations between U.S. and Japan