A disconfirming response with more than one meaning, leaving the other party unsure of the responders's position
A defense mechanism in which a person avoids admitting emotional pain by pretending not to care about an event.
A direct expression of the senders's needs, thoughts, or feelings, delivered in a way that does not attack the receiver's dignity.
An account that refers only to observable phenomena.
Attitude behind messages that dogmaticaly imply that the speaker's position is correct and that the other person's ideas are not worth considering. Likely to generate a defensive response
An inconsistency between two conflicting pieces of information, attitudes, or behaviors. communicators strive to reduce dissonance, often through defense mechanisms that maintain an idealized presenting image.
An emotional tone of a relationship between two or more individuals. The degree to which you feel valued.
A defense mechanism in which a person stresses a strength in one area to camouflage a shortcoming in some other area
A message that expresses caring or respect for another person
An explanation of the results that follow from either the behvior of the person whom the message is addressed or the speaker's interpretaiton of the addressee's behavior. These can describe what happens to the speaker, the addressee, or others.
Messages in which the sender tries to impose some sort of outcome on the receiver, usually resulting in a defensive reaction.
A communication spiral in which the parties slowly lessen their dependence on one another, withdraw, and become less invested in the relationship.
De-escalatory conflict spiral
A psychological device used to maintain a presenting self-image that an individual believes is threatened
The attempt to protect a presenting self-image that an individual believes is threatened.
Gibb's term for language that describes a complaint in behavioral terms rather than being judgemental, thereby creating a supportive communication climate. See also Evaluation, "I" language
A message that expresses a lack of caring or respect for another person
A defense mechanism in which a person vents hostile or aggressive feelings on a target that cannot strike back, instead of on the true target
The ability to project oneself into another person's point of view, so as to experience the other's thoughts and feelings.
A type of supportive communication described by Gib, suggesting that the sender regards the receiver as worthy of respect
A communication spiral in which one attack leads to another until the initial skirmish escalates into a full fledged battle
Escalatory conflict spiral
Gibb's term for judgemental assessments of another person't behavior, thereby increasing the odds of creating a defensive communication climate. See also Description, "I" language.
Behavior by another that is perceived as attacking an individual's presneting image, or face
An expression of the sender's emotions that results from interpretation of sense data.
A disconfirming resonse wthat implicitly or explicitly attributes responsibility for the speaker's displeasure to another party
Six Sets of contrasting styles of verbal & non-verbal behavior. Each set describes a communication style that is likely to arouse defensiveness and a contrasting style that is like to prevent or reduce it.
A disconfirming response that is superficial or trite
A disconfirming response that ignores anpother person's attempt to communicate
A disconfimring response in which two messages, one of which is usually nonverbal, contradict each other.
A description of where the speaker stands on an issue, what he or she wants, or how he or she plans to act in the future.
A statement that describes the speaker's interpretation of the meaning of another person's behavior. See also, Attribution.
A disconfirming response in which one communicator interrupts the other
A disconfirming response in which one communicator's comments bear no relationship to the previous speaker's ideas
A defense arousing behavior described by Gibb in which the sender expresses indifference toward the receiver
A defense mechanism whereby the person steers clear of people who attack a presenting self to avoid disssonance
A supportive style of communication described by Gibb in which the communicators focus on working together to solve their problems instead of trying to impose their own solutions on one another
A supportive style of communication described by Gibb in which the sender expresses a willingness to consider the other person's position.
A defense mechanism in which logical but untrue explanations maintain an unrealistic desired or presenting self-image
A defense mechanism in which a person avoids assuming responsibility by pretending that he or she is unable to do something instead of admitting to being simply unwilling.
A defense mechanism in which a person avoids facing an unpleasant situation or fact by denying its existence.
A potential defensive reaction in which an individual redirects a perceived threat to his or her presenting self by attacking the critic with contemptuous, often ironical remarks
A reciprocal communication pattern in which each person's message reinforces the other's. Also classified as De-escalatory and escaltory
A supportive communication behavior described by Gibb in which the sender expresses a message without any attempt to manipulate he receiver
A defense arousing style of cimmunication described by Gibb in which the sender tries to manipulate or deceive the receiver
A defense arousing style of communication described by Gibb in which the sender states or implies that the receiver is not worthy of respect
A disconfirming response that uses the speaker's remark as a starting point for s shift to a new topic
A disconfirming response intended to cause psychological pain to another
A defense mechanism in which a person avoids facing unpleasant information by verbally attacking the confronting source