Podiatry Boards Part 2
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What are the cranial nerves?
- 1- Olfactory
- 2- Optic
- 3- Occulomotor
- 4- Trochlear
- 5- Trigeminal
- 6- Abducens
- 7- Facial
- 8- Vestibulocochlear
- 9- Glossopharyngeal
- 10- Vagus
- 11- Spinal accessory
- 12- Hypoglossal
What is bi-temporal hemianopsia?
Loss of temporal fields of vision
What is Homonymous hemianopsia?
Complete loss of field L or Right. So this means not the whole eye but visual field of one eye.
What are the muscle tone nerves for the tibialis anterior?
Muscle tone nerve for the abductors, EHL, EDL, EDB?
Muscle tone nerve for the intrinsics?
3/5 muscle tone means?
Fair- Complete ROM against gravity
Vibratory, 2 point discrimination, Position sense
Pain and temp
What are some celebellar tests?
- Rapid alternating movements
- Heel to shin
- Tandem walking (heel to toe)
Diseases with a steppage gait?
Polio, CMT, muscular atrophy (Peripheral or spinal level)
Parkinon's is where?
What characterisics would you see with a UMN?
- Lost of voluntary control
What is the MC neuro disorder leading to Cavus foot?
What is the worst form of CMT?
X-linked recessive: onset quicker, and severe
In CMT why the PF?
Peroneus Longus overpowers the Anterior Tib
Cause of CMT RF varus?
Tibialis posterior overpowers the Peroneus brevis
What is a high steppage gait called in CMT?
Progression atrophy of the distal UE?
What is Dejerine-Sottas Disease?
- Hypertrophic interstitial polyneuropathy
- Distal weakness and sensory loss of primarily LE
- Peripheral nerve enlarge: ONION BULBs
What is Freidrich's Ataxia?
- Recessive inheritance
- Degeneration of the posterior and lateral columns of spine
- Rapid disabling
- Weakness in LE and anterior lateral compartments
- Sensory loss also like others
- Cerebellar involvement, slurred speech and ataxia
What is Roussy Levy syndrome?
- AD and slow progression
- Resting tremor, clumsy gait, artophy of distal LE and UX absent DTRs
What is Refsum's disease?
- Heredopathia atactia polyneuritis formis
- Hypertrophic sensory-motor polyneuropathy
- Accumumlation of Phytanic Acid
- Ichthyosis, deaf, retinitis pigmentosa
What is spinal dysraphism?
- failure of mesoderm and neuroectoderm to fuse and form the neural tube
- Many spinal bifidas and meningo problems
- See leg weakness, equinovarus, diminished DTR, sensory loss,
What is meningomyelocele?
Protrusion of meninges and spinal cord
What is Spina bifida cystica?
protrusion of meninges
What is meningoradiculocele?
protrusion of meninges and nerve roots
What is Cerebral palsy?
- Static brain lesions acquired in utero or delivery or short after.
- Common to trauma
- Asphyxir or premature
- Spasitic diplegia- scissoring gait
- Spasitic quadriplegia- LE and UE
- Spactic hemiplegia- unilateral spastic hemiparesis less severe mental impairment
What is Muscular Dystrophy?
- Limb Girdle
Duchenne is characteristic of what?
- Gower's sign- getting up from the floor, ankle equiuns, equinovarus
- Wheelchair bound by 20
- Sex linked
- Deletion of Dystrophin
- PSUEDOHYPERTROPHY of CALF
What is Beckers?
- sex linked also
- Less severe than Duchene
- Mainly affects the facial and should muscles, tonic muscle spasms
- LE later in life
Foot drop and tonic muscle spasms
First sign is should pelvic girdle weakness and atrophy
What are the causes of peripheral neuropathy?
This disease is seen with cytoplasmic eosinophilic inclusions in the neurons of substantia nigra?
Signs of parkinson's?
- Resting tremor
- Loss of postrural reflexes
- Festinating gait
This disease is characterized with demyelinating plaues in white matter of CNS?
- Multiple sclerosis
- Cerebellar ataxia
- Intention tremor
- Scanning dysarthria
- Optic neuritis
- Memory loss
What is the time period of a TIA?
Ischemia for >24 hours to an area of the brain
What is a status epilecticus?
Series of seizures without total recovery of consciousness
Do generalized seizures have a prodromal period?
What are the types of generalized seizures?
- Absence (Petit Mal)- impairment of consciousness only, mild clonic, atonic or tonic.
- Mycolinc seizures
What is a focal (partial local) seizure?
- Simple focal- in a specific spot of the brain with specific signs such as visual or audio changes
- Complex- is a simple folloed by impairment of conscouness
What is myasthenia gravis?
- Ach receptor antibodies that destroy the receptor sites on the postsynpatic membrane. Block end plate potentials
- Weak and fatigue easily.
- Double vision and ptosis
What is Eaton Lambert syndrome?
- Like myasthenia gravis but involves defect in nueromuscular transmission die to decrease in number of Ach.
- --Use AMGs and tetras with caution
What is Gullain Barre?
- Immunological mediated demyelinating polyneuritis
- Bimodal peaks of ages 15-35 and 50-75
- Preceded by viral or mycoplasma infection, sx, immunization or SLE
- Rapid progressive motor weakness distal to proximal
- Sensory loss
- May have elevated proteins in CSF
- Resolves in 2-4 weeks
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