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  1. Activity
    • how active in giving off radiation a substance is
    • analogy - how hard is it raining
  2. Alpha particle
    • a nuclear particle identical to a helium nucleus (2 protons & 2 neutrons)
    • released through alpha decay
  3. Becquerel (Bq)
    a unit of activity of a radioactive sample equal to one disintegration per second
  4. Beta particle
    • a particle identical to an electron that forms in the nucleus when a neutron changes to a proton and an electron
    • released through beta decay
  5. Carbon dating
    • a technique used to date ancient specimens that contain carbon
    • the age is determined by the amount of active carbon-14 that remains in the sample
  6. Chain reaction
    • a fission reaction that will continue once it has been initiated by a high-energy neutron bombarding a heavy nucleus such as U-235
    • a sustained nuclear reaction
  7. Curie (Ci)
    • a unit of the activity of a radioactive sample equal to 3.7 x 10**10 disintegrations per second
    • amount of radiation emitted from 1 gram of radium in 1 s
    • 3.7 x 10**10 Becquerel
  8. Decay curve
    a diagram of the decay of a radioactive element
  9. Equivalent dose
    the measure of biological damage from an absorbed dose that has been adjusted for the type of radiation
  10. Fission
    • a process in which large nuclei are split into smaller pieces, releasing large amounts of energy
    • when a nucleus splits to form smaller nuclei
    • takes place in power plants
    • takes place in some nuclear devices
  11. Fusion
    • a reaction in which large amounts of energy are released when small nuclei combine to form larger nuclei
    • when nuclei are joined to form larger nuclei
    • takes place in stars & our sun
  12. Gamma ray
    high-energy radiation emitted by an unstable nucleus
  13. Gray (Gy)
    a unit of absorbed dose equal to 100 rad
  14. Half-life
    • the length of time it takes for one-half of a radioactive sample to decay
    • the more radioactive the sample, the shorter the half-life
  15. Half-life equations
    • TT - total elapsed time
    • T 1/2 - half-life time
    • N - number of half-lives
    • IMA - initial mass/activity
    • RMA - remaining mass/activity after N half-lives
    • TT = T 1/2 * N
    • RMA = IMA * (1 / 2**N) = IMA * (0.5)**N
  16. Ionizing radiation
    • radiation that can break a bond or remove certain electrons around an atom
    • produces ion pairs
  17. Nuclear equation rules
    • total mass # on both sides of the equation must be equal
    • total atomic # on both sides of the equation must be equal
  18. Nuclear reactions
    all are exothermic
  19. Positron
    • a particle with no mass and a positive charge produced when a proton is transformed into a neutron and a positron
    • released as positron emission
    • also called beta-positive
  20. Rad (radiation absorbed dose)
    • a measure of an amount of radiation absorbed by the body
    • analogy - how much rain hits you
  21. Radiation
    energy or particles released by radioactive atoms
  22. Radiation protection
    • time
    • distance
    • shielding
  23. Radioactive decay
    the process by which an unstable nucleus breaks down with the release of high-energy radiation
  24. Rem (radiation equivalent in humans)
    • a measure of the biological damage caused by the various kinds of radiation (rad x radiation biological factor)
    • takes into account what kind of particle is hitting you
    • radiation biological factor:
    • - 1 for beta, gamma, x-rays
    • - 10 for protons & neutrons
    • - 20 for alpha
  25. Scan
    the image of a site in the body created by the detection of radiation from radioactive isotopes that have accumulated in that site
  26. Shielding
    materials used to provide protection from radioactive sources
  27. Sievert (Sv)
    a unit of biological damage (equivalent dose) equal to 100 rem
Card Set:

vet tech chemistry nuclear radiation set
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