Cerebellum

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flucas
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18952
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Cerebellum
Updated:
2010-05-24 01:53:07
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cerebellum neuroscience neuroanatomy HUBIO Felicia Lucas project neuro
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Cerebellum (HUBIO 532)
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  1. The labelled components belong to which structure?
    cerebellum

    The smallest folds, which form the ridges visible on the outside of the cerebellum, are called folia. Groups of adjacent folia form lobules that are divided by fissures
  2. What are the lobes and major fissures of the cerebellum?
    • anterior lobe
    • primary fissure
    • posterior lobe
    • flocularnodular lobe
    • posterolateral fissure

  3. Why is the anterior lobe of the cerebellum, or the paleocerebellum, also described as the "spinal cerebellum"?
    because the anterior lobe of the cerebellum receives its primary input from the spinal cord
  4. What is the primary input of the posterior lobe of the cerebellum, or neocerebellum, and what tract transmits it?
    • primary input: cerebral cortex
    • signals from the cerebral cortex are transmitted to the cerebellum via relay neurons in the pontine nuclei
  5. What two sub-components make the vestibulocerebellum?
    • nodulus of cerebellum
    • floculus of cerebellum
  6. What is the primary input of the flocularnodular lobe of the cerebellum, or vestibulocerebellum?
    primary input: vestibular labrynth/nerve and vestibular nuclei
  7. What structure does the bottom of the cerebellum form?
    4th ventricle
  8. Which statement is false?

    A. the posterolateral fissure of the cerebellum separates the uvula from the nodulus (i.e. the posterior and flocculonodular lobes)
    B. cerebellar damage causes a person's movements to become slow, inaccurate, jerky, and inconsistent
    C. the cerebellum has projections into each of the structures from which the four major descending motor tracts originate
    D. cerebellar damage always causes paralysis
    E. the cerebellum has around twice as many neurons as the cerebral cortex
    D. cerebellar damage always causes paralysis
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  9. What is the function of the cerebellum?
    to make our movements as fast, accurate, consistent, and fluid as possible
  10. What is the "vermis" and what 2 structures does it separate?
    the vermis is the midline region of the cerebellum and it is in between the cerebellar hemispheres
  11. What part of the cerebellum is not visible from this view?
    floccularnodular lobe
  12. What is the "tonsil" of the cerebellum and why is it clinically important?
    • the "tonsil" of the cerebellum is portion of the cerebellum adjacent to the medulla
    • the tonsil is clinically important because if there is trauma or chemical insult to the brain that results in brain swelling, the tonsil is forced through the foramen magnum (tonsil herniation) where it compresses the medulla, reducing blood supply to the medulla, kills patient by suppressing respiratory centers
  13. Which area(s) of the cerebellum influence leg movements?

    A. parts of anterior lobe only
    B. along the length of the vermis (midline)
    C. parts of anterior lobe and parts of the posterior lobe
    D. in a central area (at the midline between the anterior and posterior lobes)
    E. parts of the posterior lobe only
    C. parts of anterior lobe and parts of the posterior lobe
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  14. What are the names of the cerebellar peduncles? Are they paired structures?
    • superior cerebellar peduncle (i.e. brachium conjunctivum)
    • middle cerebellar peduncle (i.e. brachium pontis)
    • inferior cerebellar peduncle (i.e. restiform body)
    • yes, the cerebellar peduncles are paired structures
  15. Which pair of cerebellar peduncles decussate?

    A. superior cerebellar peduncles
    B. none of the cerebellar peduncles decussate
    C. middle cerebellar peduncles
    D. inferior cerebellar peduncles
    A. superior cerebellar peduncles
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  16. Which midbrain structure is at the level of decussation of the superior cerebellar peduncles?
    inferior colliculi
  17. In which cross-sections is the decussation of the superior cerebellar peduncles visible?

    A. rostral midbrain
    B. caudal midbrain
    C. rostral pons
    D. answers b and c are correct
    E. caudal pons
    D. answers b and c are correct
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  18. Which of the cerebellar peduncles deliver input signals to the cerebellum and which ones relay output signals?
    • input signals: middle cerebellar peduncle; inferior cerebellar peduncle
    • (40x)output signals: superior cerebellar peduncle
  19. Where do the fibers of the superior cerebellar peduncle originate and terminate?
    • originate: cerebellum
    • terminate: motor-related brain structures
  20. Where do the fibers of the inferior cerebellar peduncle originate and where do they terminate?
    • originate: vestibular nuclei, vestibular labyrinth/nerve, spinal cord
    • terminate: cerebellum
  21. Where do the fibers of the middle cerebellar peduncle originate and terminate?
    • originate: pontine nuclei (relaying info from cerebral cortex)
    • terminate: cerebellum
  22. Which is the most lateral set of cerebellar peduncles?

    A. middle cerebellar peduncles
    B. all of the cerebellar peduncles are in the same longitudinal plane
    C. superior cerebellar peduncles
    D. inferior cerebellar peduncles
    A. middle cerebellar peduncles
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  23. What two types of fibers contribute to the inferior cerebellar peduncle?
    • climbing fibers
    • mossy fibers
  24. What are the names of the input fibers that enter the cerebellum via the inferior peduncle and where do they originate? What types of information do they each transmit?
    • olivocerebellar: inferior olivary nuclei (contralateral somatosensory and proprioception)
    • reticulocerebellar: lateral reticular nucleus (ipsilateral movement of body in space)
    • vestibulocerebellar: vestibular nucleus (ipsilateral movement of head in space)
    • cuneocerebellar: lateral (external) cuneate nucleus (ipsilateral proprioception of arm)
    • posterior spinocerebellar: spinal cord (ipsilateral proprioception of leg)

  25. What two nuclei within the inferior olive relay information to the cerebellum via the inferior peduncle? What types of information do they transmit, respectively?
    • medial accessory nerve (CN IX) nucleus: (contralateral) somatosensory information
    • dorsal accessory nerve (CN IX) nucleus: (contralateral) proprioceptive information
  26. Which of the following inferior cerebellar peduncle tracts relays information to the cerebellum from the contralateral side of the body?

    A. vestibulocerebellar
    B. olivocerebellar
    C. reticulocerebellar
    D. posterior spinocerebellar
    E. cuneocerebellar
    B. olivocerebellar
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  27. Where do the fibers that travel to the cerebellum via the middle peduncle originate and terminate?
    • (cortico-ponto-cerebellar pathway)
    • fibers originate in the cortex (each from frontal, temporal, parietal, occipital lobes)
    • fibers from the cortex synapse on the ipsilateral pontine nuclei
    • postsynaptic fibers from the pontine nuclei cross to the contralateral cerebellar cortex (i.e. to contralateral middle peduncle)
    • the fibers terminate as mossy fibers in the granular layer of the cerebellar cortex
  28. At what level do the signals carried in the cortico-ponto-cerebellar pathway cross to the contralateral side of the body?
    at the level of the pontine nuclei
  29. Which statement is false?

    A. the dentate nucleus of the cerebellum is the smallest of the nuclei
    B. each cerebellar nucleus receives input from the Purkinje cells in the (cerebellar) cortex nearest to it
    C. over 90% of the cerebellar input in primates is transmitted by the middle cerebellar peduncle
    D. the white matter between the cerebellar cortex and nuclei are axons from the middle peduncles, inferior peduncles and cerebellar cortex
    A. the dentate nucleus of the cerebellum is the smallest of the nuclei
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  30. What are the names of the cerebellar nuclei and how are the aligned? What areas of the cerebellar cortex are they connected to?
    • (medial) fastigial/roof nucleus: vermis
    • (intermediate/interpositus) emboliform nucleus: intermediate cortex
    • (intermediate/interpositus) globose nucleus: intermediate cortex
    • (lateral) dentate nucleus: cerebellar hemispheres

    all are connected to cerebellar cortex via Purkinje cells
  31. What particular types of cells transmit information from the cerebellar cortex to the cerebellar nuclei?
    Purkinje cells
  32. What are the four layers of the cerebellar cortex and what do they each contain?
    • (superficial)
    • molecular layer: dendritic "trees" of Purkinje cells, axons of granular cells (i.e. parallel fibers); stellate interneurons, basket cells
    • Purkinje layer: cell bodies of Purkinje cells
    • granular layer: granular cells, Golgi cell interneurons
    • white matter layer: mossy and climbing fibers (going towards cortex); axons of dendritic cells
    • (deep)
  33. In which direction do the parallel fibers of the molecular layer of the cerebellar cortex run? What are they parallel with?
    • the parallel fibers of the cerebellar cortex run medially-laterally
    • they are parallel to the long-axis of the folia of the cerebellum
  34. True or False: The axons of the Purkinje cells in the cerebellar cortex project superficially towards the corex surface, not deep
    False
  35. What are the two components of the parallel fibers in the molecular layer of the cerebellar cortex?
    • dendrites of Purkinje cells
    • axons of granule cells
  36. True or False: All output from the cerebellar cortex leaves the cortex via Purkinje cell axons.
    True
  37. From which structures do mossy fibers entering the cerebellum originate?
    • pontine nuclie
    • (spinal cord) external cuneate (forelimb)
    • (spinal cord) Clarke's column (hindlimb)
    • vestibular nuclei
    • vestibular nerve
    • reticular nuclei
    • trigeminal nucleus (head)
  38. From which structures do climbing fibers entering the cerebellum originate?
    • inferior olive
    • medial accessory nerve nucleus
    • dorsal accessory nerve nucleus
  39. True or False: In the cerebellar cortex, the molecular layer is mostly densely packed cells and the granular layer is mostly fibers with a few scattered cells.
    False
  40. In which cerebellar cortex layer does a mossy fiber terminate?
    granular layer
  41. Where do the fibers of the superior cerebellar peduncle originate and terminate?
    • originate: cerebellar nuclei
    • terminate: in structures that send signals down spinal cord to spinal motoneurons
    • motor regions of cerebral cortex (via thalamus relay)
    • red nuclei
    • vestibular nuclei
    • reticular nuclei
  42. At what level is the ventral tegmental decussation? What tracts cross in this region?
    • midbrain
    • rubrobulbar, rubrospinal, tegmentospinal tracts
  43. Where do the fibers from the dentate and interpositus nucleui of the cerebellum terminate?
    • red nucleus
    • thalamus
  44. What are the 6 major signs associated with cerebellar damage?
    • postural instability (static: unable to maintain posture standing; dynamic: unable to maintain posture while walking --> ataxia)
    • delayed movement (start/stop)
    • deficit in performing continuous/repetitive movements (alternating movements)
    • movement dysmetria (wrong movement size)
    • movement decomposition (movements that require several simultaneous joint rotations)
    • motor learning/adaptation deficit (movement is repeatedly inaccurate)
  45. Damage to which area of the cerebellum is responsible for postural instability?
    • vestibulocerebellum
    • i.e. flocculonodular lobe of cerebellum
  46. Damage to which area of the cerebellum is responsible for delayed movment (start/stop), deficit in performing continuous/repetitive movements?
    • neocerebellum
    • i.e. posterior lobe of cerebellum
  47. Patients who present with dysdiadochokinesis (difficulty with rapidly alternating movements) may have damage to which area of the cerebellum?
    neocerebellum
  48. Damage to which are of the cerebellum is responsible for dysmetria (wrong movement size)?
    • neocerebellum and/or paleocerebellum
    • (damage to any area of the cerebellum may ultimately lead to dysmetria in different areas of body)
  49. Damage to which area of the cerebellum is responsible for movement decomposition (can only rotate one joint at a time in a sequence)?
    neocerebellum and/or paleocerebellum
  50. Damage to which cerebellar area will cause motor learning/adaptation deficit (movement is repeatedly inaccurate)?
    damage to any part of the cerebellum will result in motor learning deficits
  51. Does the cerebellum exhibit somatotopy?
    • Yes, the cerebellum exhibits somatotopy
    • the somatotopy of the cerebellum is not as well-defined as in the motor or somatosensory cortex
    • (e.g. the visual and auditory area also relates to eye movements)
  52. Which brain structures are bigger in higher animals?
    • dentate nucleus of cerebellum
    • cerebral cortex
    • lateral cerebellar cortex
    • pontine nuclei
    • principle nucleus of inferior olive (supplies climbing fibers to lateral cerebellar cortex)

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