AP Government

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Author:
devinbaith
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189522
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AP Government
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2012-12-14 16:54:01
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Clingman
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Hilliard Bradley High School Midterm
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  1. Globalization
    The increasing inderdependence of citizens and nations across the world
  2. Government
    The legitimate use of force to control human behavior; also, the organization or agency authorized to excercise that force
  3. National Soverignty
    Nation's ability to control itself
  4. Order
    The rule of law to preserve life and protect property. Maintaining order is the oldest purpose of government
  5. Communism
    A political system in which, in theory, ownership of all land and productive facilities is in the hands of the people, and all goods are equally shared. The production and distribution of goods are controlled by an authoritarian government
  6. Public Goods
    Benefits and Services, such as parks and sanitation, that benefit all citizens but are not likely to be produced voluntarily by individuals
  7. Freedom of
    An absence of constraints on behavior, as in freedom of speech or freedom of religion
  8. Freedom from
    Immunity
  9. Police Power
    The authority of a government to maintain order and safeguard citizens' health, morals, safety, and welfare
  10. Political Equality
    Equality in political decision making: one vote per person, with all votes counted equally
  11. Social Equality
    Equality in wealth, education, and status
  12. Equality of Opportunity
    The idea that each person is guaranteed the same chance to succeed in life
  13. Equality of Outcome
    The concept that society must ensure that people are equal, and governements must design policies to redistribute wealth and status so that economic and social equality is actually achieved
  14. Rights
    The benefits of government to which every citizen is entitled
  15. What is the Original Dilemma?
    Freedom Vs. Order
  16. The Modern Dilemma
    Freedom vs. Equality
  17. Political Ideology
    A consistent set of values and beliefs about the proper purpose and scope of government
  18. Totalitarianism
    A political philosophy that advocates unlimited power for the government to enable it to control all sectors of society
  19. Socialism
    A form of role in which the central government plays a sstrong role in regulating existing private industry and directing the economy, although it does allow some private ownership of productive capacity
  20. Democratic Socialism
    A socialist form of government that guarantees civil liberties such as freedom of speech and religion. Citizens determine the extent of government activity through free elections and competitive political parties
  21. Capitalism
    The system of government that favors free enterprise (privately owned buisnesses operating without government regulation)
  22. Libertarianism
    A political ideology that is opposed to all government action except as necessary to protect life and property
  23. Libertarians
    Those who are opposed to using government to promote either order or equality
  24. Laissez Faire
    • An economic doctrine that opposes any form of government intervention in business
    • Hands off approach
  25. Liberals
    Those who are willing to use government to promote freedom but not order
  26. Anarchism
    A political philosophy that opposes government in any form
  27. Conservatives
    Those who are willing to use government to promote order but not equality
  28. Communitarians
    Those who are willing to use government to promote both order and equality
  29. What is Hobbes Philosophy
    • Preserving Life is the most important function of government
    • State of Nature
    • People must give up their rights to the government
  30. What is Locke's Philosophy
    Protection of Life, Liberty, and Property
  31. Marx
    • No private ownership of the production of public goods
    • Communism
  32. What are concepts that deal with WHAT the government can do?
    Order, Freedom, and Equality
  33. What are the concepts that deal with HOW the government makes its choices?
    Policy making and the process of choice
  34. What is different about Freedom and Equaltiy from Order
    They are viewed as more positive
  35. Two views of order
    • Narrow: Preserving life and protecting order
    • Social Order
  36. How do Americans compare with others when it comes to preserving order?
    • Not valued very much
    • Americans want to have more say
  37. Autocracy
    A system of government in which the power to govern is concentrated in the hands of one individual
  38. Oligarchy
    A system of Government in which power is concentrated in the hands of a few people
  39. Democracy
    A system of government in which, in theory, the people rule, either directly or indirectly
  40. Procedural Democratic Theory
    A view of democracy as being emboddied in a decesion making process that involves universal participation, political equality, majority rule, and responsiveness
  41. Universal Participation
    The concept that everyone in a democracy should participate in governmental decision making
  42. Majority Rule
    The principle - basic to procedural democratic theory - that the decision of a group must reflect the preference of more than half of those participating: a simple majority
  43. Participatory Democracy
    A system of government where rank-and-file citizens rule themselves rather than electing representatives to govern on their behalf
  44. Representative Democracy
    A system of government where citizens elect public officials to govern on their behalf
  45. Responsiveness
    A decision making principle, necessitated by representative government, that implies that elected representatives should do what the majority of people wants
  46. Substantive Democratic Theory
    The view that democracy is embodied in the substance of government policies rather than in the policymaking procedure
  47. Minority Rights
    The benefits of government that cannot be denied to any citizens by majority decisions
  48. Majoritarian Model of Democracy
    The classical theory of democracy in which government by the people is interrupted as government by the majority of the people
  49. Deliberative Democracy
    That model of democracy in which citizens and their elected representatives excercise reasoned and full debate on questions of public policy
  50. Interest Group
    An organized group of individuals that seeks to influence public policy. Also called a lobby
  51. Pluralist Model of Democracy
    An interpretation of democracy in which government by the people is taken to mean government by people operating through competing interest groups
  52. Elite Theory
    The view that a small group of people actually makes most of the important government decisions
  53. 3 Questions of Procedural Democracy
    • 1. Who should participate in decision making?
    • 2. How much should wach participant's vote count?
    • 3. How many votes are needed to reach a decision?
  54. According to Rousseau what is essential to having a true democracy?
    All citizens gather to make decisions and supervise the government
  55. What are some problems with direct democracy?
    Too many people, not enough time to make decisions
  56. Problems with Representative Democracy
    • The Representatives may not make appropriate decisions
    • Lack of Responsiveness
  57. What does the Substantive View of Democracy focus on?
    the substance of government policies not the procedures
  58. Declaration of Independence
    Drafted by Thomas Jefferson, the document that proclaimed the right of the colonies to separate from Great Britain
  59. Social Contract Theory
    The belief that the people agree to set up rulers for certain purposes and thus have the right to resist or remove rulers who act against those purposes
  60. Republic
    A government without a monarch; a government rooted in the consent of the governed, whose power is exercised by the elected representatives to the governed
  61. Confederation
    A loose association of independent states that agree to cooperate on specific matters
  62. Articles of Confederation
    The compact among the thirteen original states that established the first government of the United States
  63. Legislative Branch
    The lawmaking branch of government
  64. Executive Branch
    The law-enforcing branch of government
  65. Judicial Branch
    The branch of government that interprets laws
  66. New Jersey Plan
    Submitted by the head of the New Jersey delegates to the Constitutional Convention of 1787, a set of nine resolutions that would have, in effect, preserved the Articles of Confederation by amending rather than replacing them
  67. Great Compromise
    Submitted by the Connecticut Delegation to the Constitutional Convention of 1787, and thus also known as the Connecticut Compromise, a plan calling for a bicameral legislature in which the House of Representatives would be apportioned according to population and the states would be represented equally in the Senate
  68. Electoral College
    A body of electors chosen by voters to cast ballots for president and vice president
  69. Republicanism
    A form of government in which power resides in the people and is excercised by their elected representatives
  70. Federalism
    The divison of power between a central government and regional governments
  71. Separation of Powers
    The assignment of lawmaking, law-enforcing, and law-interpreting functions to separate branches of government
  72. Checks and Balances
    A government structure that gives each branch some scrutiny of and control over the other branches
  73. Enumerated Powers
    The powers explicitly granted to Congress by the Constitution
  74. Necessary and Proper Clause
    The last clause in Section 8 of Article 1 of the Constitution, which gives Congress the means to execute its enumerated powers. This clause is the basis for Congress's inplied powers. Also called the elastic clause.
  75. Implied Powers
    These powers that Congress needs to execute its enumerated powers
  76. Judicial Review
    The power to declare congressional (and presidential) acts invalid because they violate the Constitution
  77. Supremacy Clause
    The clause in Article VI of the Constitution that asserts that national laws take precedence over state and local laws when they conflict
  78. Bill of Rights
    The first ten amendments to the constitution. They prevent the national government from tampering with fundamental rights and civil liberties, and emphasize the limited character of national power
  79. Extraordinary Majorities
    Majorities greater than that required by majority rule, that is, greater than 50 percent plus one
  80. Federalism
    The division of power between a central government and regional governments
  81. Dual Federalsim
    • Layer Cake
    • A view that holds the Constitution is a compact among soverign states, so that the powers of the national government are fixed and limited
  82. States' Rights
    The idea that all rights not specifically conferred on the national government by the Constitution are reserved to the states
  83. Cooperative Federalism
    • Marble Cake
    • A view that holds that the Constitution is an agreement amoung people who are citizens of both state and nation, so there is little distinction between state powers and national powers
  84. Commerce Clause
    The third clause of Article I Section 8 of the constitution which gives congress the power to regulate commerce amoung the states
  85. Grant-in-aid
    Money provided by one level of government to another, to be spent for a given purpose
  86. Categorial Grant
    A grant-in-aid targeted for a specific purpose either by formula or by project
  87. Formula Grant
    A categorial grant distributed according to a particular formula, which specifies who is eligible for the grants and how much each eligible applicant will receive
  88. Project Grant
    A categorical grant awarded on the basis of competitive applications submitted by prospective recipients
  89. Block Grants
    A grant-in-aid awarded for general purposes, allowing the recipient great discretion in spending the grant money
  90. Nullification
    The declaration by a state that a particular action of the national government is not applicable to that state
  91. Preemption
    The power of Congress to enact laws by which the national government assumes total or partial responsibility for a state government function
  92. Mandate
    A requirement that a state undertake an activity or provide a service, in keeping with minimum national standards
  93. Restraint
    A requirement laid down by act of Congress, prohibiting a state or local government from excercising a certain power
  94. Municipal Government
    The government until that administers a city or town
  95. County Government
    The government unit that administers a county
  96. School District
    An area for which a local government unit administers elementary and secondary school programs
  97. Special District
    A government unit created to perform particular functions, especially when those functions are best performed across jurisdictional boundaries
  98. Home Rule
    The right to enact and enforce legislarion locally

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