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What are the 3 types of food additivies?
- Food processing aids
- Food preservatives
- Food quality enhancers
What are the two types of foods additives?
- Intention/direct additives
- Incidental/indirect additives
What are the 2 types of texture additives?
- Thickeners/thixotropic agents
What are emulsifiers?
Emulsifiers have both hydrophobic and hydrophilic groups that enable them to bring aqueous and non-aqueous phases togethert to form a stable emulsion
What are some examples of thickener additives?
Starch, carboxymethyl cellulose, whey protein, egg white powder
What are the 2 types of water binding agents?
- Anti-caking agents
What are humectants?
- Added to foods to bind and hold moisture
- Makes foods juicy and succulent
- Food products that have humectants added to prevent drying out are muscle foods
Which foods commonly have humectants to prevent drying out?
What are anti-caking agents?
Absorb or withdraw moisture from food materials to keep them dry and prevent sogginess
What does rennet or rennin do?
Breaks up kappa-casein
What does papain do?
Breaks down protein to tenderize meat
What do amylases do?
Break down starch to make a sweeter product
What food products are foaming agents added to?
- Food products with foam as components
- Meringue, Ice cream, beer
What is foam?
Foam is comprised of small air bubbles trapped in a liquid phase
What are some substances that form foams?
Egg white, other proteinaceous material, peptides
Why are acids added to foods?
To provide flavor
Why are bases such as NaHCO3 added to foods?
As a leavening agent in baking
Why are buffers added to foods?
Used to stabilize KI of iodized salts
How are food additives used as preseratives?
- Control microbial growth (fermentation, humectants, acids)
- Gas sterilants
- Synthetic metabolic inhibitors
- Inorganic compounds
What are some common additives that prevent microbial growth?
- Acetic acid
- Lactic acid
- Ethanol (prevents growth of several microorganisms)
Which products commonly have anti-caking agents added to them?
Salt and sugar
What are the 3 categories of food quality enhancers?
- Flavoring agents
- Organic flavors
- Nutritional additives
What are some natural types of flavoring agents?
Sugars, salts, spices, protein hydrolysates
What is an example of artificial flavoring agents?
What are some examples of organic flavor additives?
- Extraction- cocoa, coffee, tea
- Fermentation- MSG
- Chemical synthesis- vanilla
What are the categories of nutritional additives?
Why is nutritional restoration needed?
During food processing, some essential components may be lost so it is necessary to put back these components to the food products
What is an example of nutritional restoration?
Addition of vitamin C to canned tomato juice, or dehydrated mashed potatoes
What is an example of nutritional enrichment?
Addition of Fe and vitamins B1, B2 and niacin to flour
What is an example of nutritional fortification?
Addition of vitamins A and D to margarine or skim milk
What are the 3 criteria for food additive use?
- Must be safe for continuous use
- Must not be used to deceive the consumer
- Must be used to the consumer's advantage
What must happen before a compound is accepted for use as an additive?
Before a compound is accepted for use as an additive, it must be tested for safety in experimental animals and monitored for both short term and long term effects
What must an additive be tested for before it is accepted for use in foods?
- Effect on size (growth and development)
- Effect on appearance (such as fur quality)
- Litter size (effect on number of offspring produced)
- Still births; if any
- Effects on various organs (kidney, liver, etc)
- Incidence of tumors
What do short term studies test for?
- Daily for appearance and behavior
- Weekly for feed consumption and body weight changes as well as organ function
What do long term studies test for?
Offspring (Stillbirths, litter size, weight at birth, sex ratio, fetal malformations, growth rate, survival data)
What are long term studies used to determine?
The Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) of that additive for humans
What is Acceptable Daily Intake?
One-hundredth of the highest level of the additive that caused no harmful effect on experimental animal
What is the deception factor?
- Additive must not be used to mask defects in food products to deceive consumers
- eg. use of sulfites to reverse discoloration of fruits/vegetables and raw meats
How must a food additive result in advantage to consumer?
- Must improve or maintain nutritive value of the food product
- Must improve or maintain quality/acceptability of a food product
- Must increase/maintain quantity of a food material/product
What is GRAS?
Generally Regarded as Safe
What are the 2 categories of food coloring agents?
natural and synthetic
What are certified food colors?
Produced by chemical synthesis
What are uncertified food colors?
Derived from plant, animal, microbial and mineral sources
What are the 2 forms of certified colors?
- Dyes- water soluble, sold as powders, granules, liquids
- Lakes- water insoluble, marketed as pastes and dispersions
What are the criteria for the choice of dyes?
- Composition of formulation
- Processing conditions
- Shelf-life requirement
What are lakes?
Al or Ca salts of dyes; ideal for coloring fatty/oily food products
What are some examples of incidental additives?
- Polychlorinated biphenyls (PBCs)
- Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)
- Fundal toxins
- Heavy metals
- Radioactive fallout
How are food additives used to improve availability of food?
Use of isopropyl alcohol to solubilize protein from meat scraps for use as food or feed