Food Chem - Food Additives

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  1. What are the 3 types of food additivies?
    • Food processing aids
    • Food preservatives
    • Food quality enhancers
  2. What are the two types of foods additives?
    • Intention/direct additives
    • Incidental/indirect additives
  3. What are the 2 types of texture additives?
    • Emulsifiers
    • Thickeners/thixotropic agents
  4. What are emulsifiers?
    Emulsifiers have both hydrophobic and hydrophilic groups that enable them to bring aqueous and non-aqueous phases togethert to form a stable emulsion
  5. What are some examples of thickener additives?
    Starch, carboxymethyl cellulose, whey protein, egg white powder
  6. What are the 2 types of water binding agents?
    • Humectants
    • Anti-caking agents
  7. What are humectants?
    • Added to foods to bind and hold moisture¬†
    • Makes foods juicy and succulent¬†
    • Food products that have humectants added to prevent drying out are muscle foods
  8. Which foods commonly have humectants to prevent drying out?
    Muscle foods
  9. What are anti-caking agents?
    Absorb or withdraw moisture from food materials to keep them dry and prevent sogginess
  10. What does rennet or rennin do?
    Breaks up kappa-casein
  11. What does papain do?
    Breaks down protein to tenderize meat
  12. What do amylases do?
    Break down starch to make a sweeter product
  13. What food products are foaming agents added to?
    • Food products with foam as components
    • Meringue, Ice cream, beer
  14. What is foam?
    Foam is comprised of small air bubbles trapped in a liquid phase
  15. What are some substances that form foams?
    Egg white, other proteinaceous material, peptides
  16. Why are acids added to foods?
    To provide flavor
  17. Why are bases such as NaHCO3 added to foods?
    As a leavening agent in baking
  18. Why are buffers added to foods?
    Used to stabilize KI of iodized salts
  19. How are food additives used as preseratives?
    • Control microbial growth (fermentation, humectants, acids)
    • Gas sterilants
    • Synthetic metabolic inhibitors
    • Inorganic compounds
    • Antioxidants
  20. What are some common additives that prevent microbial growth?
    • Acetic acid
    • Lactic acid
    • Ethanol (prevents growth of several microorganisms)
  21. Which products commonly have anti-caking agents added to them?
    Salt and sugar
  22. What are the 3 categories of food quality enhancers?
    • Flavoring agents
    • Organic flavors
    • Nutritional additives
  23. What are some natural types of flavoring agents?
    Sugars, salts, spices, protein hydrolysates
  24. What is an example of artificial flavoring agents?
  25. What are some examples of organic flavor additives?
    • Extraction- cocoa, coffee, tea
    • Fermentation- MSG
    • Chemical synthesis- vanilla
  26. What are the categories of nutritional additives?
    • Restoration
    • Enrichment
    • Fortification
  27. Why is nutritional restoration needed?
    During food processing, some essential components may be lost so it is necessary to put back these components to the food products
  28. What is an example of nutritional restoration?
    Addition of vitamin C to canned tomato juice, or dehydrated mashed potatoes
  29. What is an example of nutritional enrichment?
    Addition of Fe and vitamins B1, B2 and niacin to flour
  30. What is an example of nutritional fortification?
    Addition of vitamins A and D to margarine or skim milk
  31. What are the 3 criteria for food additive use?
    • Must be safe for continuous use
    • Must not be used to deceive the consumer
    • Must be used to the consumer's advantage
  32. What must happen before a compound is accepted for use as an additive?
    Before a compound is accepted for use as an additive, it must be tested for safety in experimental animals and monitored for both short term and long term effects
  33. What must an additive be tested for before it is accepted for use in foods?
    • Effect on size (growth and development)
    • Effect on appearance (such as fur quality)
    • Litter size (effect on number of offspring produced)
    • Still births; if any
    • Effects on various organs (kidney, liver, etc)
    • Incidence of tumors
  34. What do short term studies test for?
    • Daily for appearance and behavior
    • Weekly for feed consumption and body weight changes as well as organ function
  35. What do long term studies test for?
    Offspring (Stillbirths, litter size, weight at birth, sex ratio, fetal malformations, growth rate, survival data)
  36. What are long term studies used to determine?
    The Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) of that additive for humans
  37. What is Acceptable Daily Intake?
    One-hundredth of the highest level of the additive that caused no harmful effect on experimental animal
  38. What is the deception factor?
    • Additive must not be used to mask defects in food products to deceive consumers
    • eg. use of sulfites to reverse discoloration of fruits/vegetables and raw meats
  39. How must a food additive result in advantage to consumer?
    • Must improve or maintain nutritive value of the food product
    • Must improve or maintain quality/acceptability of a food product
    • Must increase/maintain quantity of a food material/product
  40. What is GRAS?
    Generally Regarded as Safe
  41. What are the 2 categories of food coloring agents?
    natural and synthetic
  42. What are certified food colors?
    Produced by chemical synthesis
  43. What are uncertified food colors?
    Derived from plant, animal, microbial and mineral sources
  44. What are the 2 forms of certified colors?
    • Dyes- water soluble, sold as powders, granules, liquids
    • Lakes- water insoluble, marketed as pastes and dispersions
  45. What are the criteria for the choice of dyes?
    • Composition of formulation
    • Processing conditions
    • Packaging
    • Shelf-life requirement
  46. What are lakes?
    Al or Ca salts of dyes; ideal for coloring fatty/oily food products
  47. What are some examples of incidental additives?
    • Pesticides
    • Polychlorinated biphenyls (PBCs)
    • Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)
    • Antibiotics
    • Fundal toxins
    • Heavy metals
    • Asbestos
    • Radioactive fallout
  48. How are food additives used to improve availability of food?
    Use of isopropyl alcohol to solubilize protein from meat scraps for use as food or feed
Card Set:
Food Chem - Food Additives
2012-12-16 20:00:32
Food Additives

Food Chem- Food Additives
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