AERO4009

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darrenp83
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AERO4009
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2012-12-17 23:50:51
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AERP4009 Aerospace Certification and Management
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  1. Airworthy (official regulatory definition)
    In a fit and safe state for flight and in conformity with its type design.

    • 1. Conforms to its type design
    • 2. In condition for safe operation
  2. Aeronautical Product
    Any aircraft, aircraft engine, aircraft propeller or aircraft appliance or part or the component parts of any of those things, including any computer system and software.

    aircraft, A/C engine, A/C propeller, A/C appliance, computer, software
  3. Finding of compliance
    -a determination by specialist that specific design item is compliant with associated Basis of Certification (BoC)

    -must be made for each item on BoC
  4. Basis of Certification
    -airworthiness standards

    • -aircraft emissions standards
    • special conditions necessary to ensure type design of A/C with unusual feature is safe

    -finding of equivalent safety

    -exemptions from airworthiness standards
  5. There are two basic types of standards in the Airworthiness Manual. What are they, and which type is exclusively Canadian?
    Design

    Procedural - exclusively Canadian
  6. List the Canadian regulatory instruments in decending order of authority:
    • Aeronautics Act
    • Regulations
    • Standards
    • Advisories
    • Policies & Procedures
  7. What document specifies the scope of authority of each delegate working within a delegated organization?
    DAEPM/EPM

    Letter of Authorization (individual)
  8. State the requirements that must be met to be eligible to become a DE within a DAO/AEO.
    • 1. Engineer or equivalent
    • 2. Through knowledge of Canadian airworthiness requirements in speciality
    • 3. Position on staff with authority to ensure compliance of design
    • 4. Greater than 1-year relationship with TCCA
    • 5. Greater than 6-years related aeronautical experience
    • 6. DAPM/EPM Limitation of privileges
  9. What is a DE?
    Designated Engineer:
  10. What does DAO stand for?
    Design Approval Organisation.
  11. What does AEO stand for?
    Airworthiness Engineering Organisation
  12. What does EPM stand for?
    Engineering Procedures Manual
  13. What does DAPM stand for?
    Design Approval Procedures Manual.
  14. Definition: Repairs
    Rectifies a deficiency and restores the aeronautical product to an airworthy condition
  15. Definition: Modifications
    Enhances utility of the aircraft
  16. What is a Certificate of Airworthiness?
    • 507.02: Where an application for a flight authority is made pursuant to section 507.06, the Minister shall issue a certificate of airworthiness in respect of an aircraft
    •    (a) for which an aircraft type design has been certified by the Minister and the certification is not in respect of a restricted category aircraft;
    •    (b) that it conforms to its certified type design; and
    •    (c) that is safe for flight
  17. What is a Special Certificate of Airworthiness?
    • 507.03 Where an application for a flight authority is made pursuant to Section 507.06, the Minister shall issue a special certificate of airworthiness in respect of an aircraft that
    •     (a) meets the criteria for one of the classifications of a special certificate of airworthiness specified in Chapter 507 of theAirworthiness Manual;
    •     (b) conforms to the applicable type design or, in the case of an amateur-built aircraft, is designed and constructed in a way that ensures its airworthiness, in conformity with the requirements ofChapter 549 of the Airworthiness Manual; and
    •     (c) is safe for flight.
  18. Why is approval needed for design change? (3)
    • 1. Legal (CAR Part VI, sub 5 - aircraft requirements; 605.03 Flight Authority; CAR Part V, sub 7 - Flight Authority; 507.02 CoA)
    • 2. Safety (Ensure design meets design standard and continues to meet it when changes made)
    • 3. Financial (Insurance invalid of CoA not in force; Fines; Loss of revenue)
  19. Definition: Major vs Minor Modifications
    • AWM 571.06, Appendix A
    • In the opinion of the Minister, has other than a negligible effect on:
    •    Weight and centre of gravity limits
    •    Structural strength
    •    Performance
    •    Powerplant operation
    •    Flight characteristics
    •    Environmental characteristics
    •    Other qualities affecting airworthiness
  20. Ten questions for establishing Basis of Certification (BoC)
    • 1. Will the latest standards be used?
    • 2. If not, what are the requirements according to CPR (Changed Product Rule)?
    • 3. If unaffected by CPR, what is the original cert. basis?
    • 4. Novel or unusual design features?
    • 5. Special retroactive requirements?
    • 6. Equivalent safety items?
    • 7. Exemptions?
    • 8. Operational requirements?
    • 9. Impact on environmental requirements?
    • 10. Does aircraft have a SSID?
  21. SRM
    Structural Repair Manual
  22. AD
    Airworthiness Directive
  23. AME
    Aircraft Maintenance Engineer
  24. AMO
    Approved Maintenance Organisation
  25. EO
    Enabling Objective / Executive Order
  26. SB
    Service Bulletin
  27. STC
    • Supplemental Type Certificate: document including a limited supplemental type approval and supplemental type approval issued before Oct 10, 1996 and a limited supplemental type certificate issued before Dec 01, 2009 under sec 513.11 or 513.22, issued by the Minister to record the approval of a change to the type design of
    •     a) an aeronautical product identified in a document by a SINGLE serial number
    •     b) several aeronautical products of same type/model, approved under single type certificate and identified in the document by serial numbers
    •     c) several aeronautical products of different types or models, approved under separate type certificates and identified in the document
  28. LSTC
    Limited Supplemental Type Certificate: (prior to Dec 01, 2009) a supplemental type certificate that is applicable only to the aeronautical products that are specified in the certificate by serial number or other identification unique to those products and includes a limited supplemental type approval (as opposed to an STC, which entitles blanket installation for a specified type)
  29. RDC
    Repair Design Certificate
  30. PDA
    Part Design Approval: a document issued by the Minister to record the approval of a type design of a replacement part intended for installation on an aeronautical product. (for identical - physically and materially - parts to the Type Certificate holder's parts. if installation instructions are different, then probably not a PDA part)
  31. What requirements are there for a manufacturer to be eligible to receive a PDA?
    • Must be a replacement part
    • PDA holder must also hold a Manufacturing Certificate of approval where the STC holder is not required to
    • Replacement part design must meet airworthiness standards for the original part when type certified and airworthiness standards in place for the aeronautical product that it is installed in (when certified)
  32. What is required for an eligible manufacturer to obtain a PDA?
    • Application - sent to TCCA Aircraft Certification (for both design and manufacture)
    • Minimum documentation to approve design including: description, compliance program, master drawing list and drawing arrangement, compliance report, and manufacturing process description
  33. What requirements are imposed on PDA parts in terms of permanent markings?
    • part is TCCA-PDA part
    • manufacturer
    • part number
    • Type Certified product up which it may be installed
  34. When would a PDA not be issued?
    • replacement part is subject to an airworthiness limitation
    • replacement part is is a standard part or commercial part
    • replacement part constitutes a change to the type design of the aeronautical product
    • replacement part creates an airworthiness limitation

    These include if affected by ADs or SDR affecting part when installed.
  35. CPR
    Changed Product Rule
  36. What does CPR apply to?
    All MAJOR changes to Type Certified products:

    • Large aircraft (airplanes and rotorcraft)
    • Engines and propellers
    • Small Aircraft (airplanes and rotorcraft - small planes, VLA, gliders, balloons, airships
    • Restricted Category aircraft
  37. What does CPR not apply to?
    • Minor design changes
    • Repairs
    • Appliances (including TSOs)
    • Engironmental requirements
    • Design changes mandated through ADs
    • Part Design Approvals (PDAs)
  38. TSO
    Technical Standards Orders
  39. CAR
    Canadian Aviation Regulations
  40. ANO
    Air Navigation Orders
  41. TCA
    Transport Canada Aviation
  42. FAR
    Federal Aviation Regulations
  43. CARAC
    Canadian Aviation Regulation Advisory Counsel
  44. JAR
    Joint Aviation Regulations
  45. AA
    Aeronautics Act
  46. AAIR
    Annual Airworthiness Information Report
  47. AMM
    Aircraft Maintenance Manual
  48. AN
    Airworthiness Notice
  49. ATO
    Approved Training Organisation
  50. AWM
    Airworthiness Manual
  51. C of A
    Certificate of Airworthiness
  52. DAO
    Design Approval Organisation
  53. DAR
    Design Approval Representitive
  54. DAPM
    Design Approval Procedures Manual
  55. EPM
    Engineering Procedures Manual
  56. ICA
    Instructions for Continuing Airworthiness: maintenance instructions that generally include product description, servicing, inspection, troubleshooting and repair instructions. They also include tasks, intervals and limitations applicable to these actions.
  57. What manuals can be found in the ICA?
    • aeroplane/rotorcraft manual
    • engine maintenance manual
    • engine overhaul manual
    • propeller maintenance manual
    • propeller overhaul manual
    • system wiring diagram
    • component overhaul/maintenance manual
    • non-destructive testing and inspection manual/section
    • Maintenance Review Board (MRB) report (Transport Category Aircraft)
  58. What are the two components of ICAs?
    Engineering and maintenance
  59. What is detailed in the "Engineering" component of ICAs?
    • What you "have" to do ->
    • Airworthiness Limitations section: mandatory replacement time intervals, related structural & systems inspection procedures
    • Structural Repair Manual (SRM)
    • Certification Maintenance Requirements
  60. What is detailed in the "Maintenance" component of ICAs?
    • What you should be "aware" of ->
    • Description of product
    • Maintenance schedule
    • Removal/Installation instructions
    • Diagrams of structural access plates
    • Details for special inspection techniques
    • Information for protective treatment after inspection
    • Data re: structural factors
    • List of special tools
    • Servicing information
  61. MRB
    Maintenance Review Board: The section of the Airworthiness Authority responsible for the approval of scheduling recommendations made by industry, on the minimum maintenance requirements of new aircraft types.
  62. MSG
    Maintenance Steering Group: A decision logic process, developed byt he Maintenance Steering Group of the Air Transport Association of America (ATA), for determining an aircraft's initial minimum scheduled maintenance requirements. The process applies Reliability Centred Maintenance (RCM) concepts
  63. CMCC
    Certification Maintenance Coordination Committee: a committee made up by manufacturers, operator representatives designated by Industry Steering COmmittee (ISC) and MRB chairperson, that functions as an advisory committee to the applicant. They propose CMRs or changes to MRB tasks or intervals
  64. CMR
    Certification Maintenance Requirements
  65. What are the process for developing the Maintenance Schedule in the ICA?
    • Engineering - System Safety/Functional Hazard Analysis
    • Engineering - Structures - Damage Tolerance/Fatigue Evaluation
    • Maintenance (Engineering) - Maintenance Review Board (MRB) process
    • Maintenance Steering Group process
  66. IPC
    Illustrated Parts Catalogue
  67. FAA
    Federal Aviation Administration
  68. FAR
    Feeral Aviation Regulations
  69. MCM
    Maintenance Control Manual
  70. SDR
    Service Difficulty Report
  71. SRM
    Structural Repair Manual
  72. TCCA
    Transport Canada Civil Aviation
  73. What are the 5 phases of Aircraft Type Certification in the correct order?
    • 1. Application and Basis of Certification
    • 2. Establish Means of Compliance and Delegation
    • 3. Demonstrate and Record Compliance in GCP
    • 4. Type Design Approval
    • 5. Post Certification - issuing flight authority and ICAs in place
  74. GCP
    General Compliance Program
  75. ICA
    Instructions for Continued Airworthiness
  76. What is the purpose of a certification plan?
    Provide EARLY and formal (documented) agreement on detailed methods of compliance
  77. What advantages are gained by the use of a certification plan?
    • Improves efficiency
    • Easy and clear understanding of expectations
    • Provides info neccessary to allocate resources
    • Early identification of certification problems
    • Early agreement of details before foreign authorities involved
    • Audit trail for foreign certification
  78. List the contents of a certification plan
    • Brief system description
    • Applicable requirements
    • Detailed methods of complaince
    • List of complaince documents
    • Level of Involvement (LoI)
    • Primary and secondary delegates
  79. For non-significant design changes, regulations allow continued compliance with existing certification basis without further approval by the Minister except when:
    • Design change is novel or unusual for proposed/existing certification basis and where issuance of Special Conditions (511.13(7)) or (513.07) is warranted.
    • Existing certification basis is not adequate and applicant did not volunteer to include later amendment of Standard of Airworthiness to make certification basis appropriate for design change.
    • Applicant elects to comply with later amendments to existing certification basis under 511.13(9) or 513.07(9)(a)
  80. What is the purpose of a Functional Hazard Analysis (FHA)?
    To identify and classify potentially hazardous conditions functionally or operationally. It is a preliminary step that considers minor, major, hazardous and catastrophic conditions but will not identify all possible failure conditions.
  81. What are the outputs of a Functional Hazard Analysis (FHA)?
    • To determine the acceptability of design concept
    • To identify problem areas requiring design change, additional analysis and scope
  82. CMR
    Certification Maintenance Requirements: mandatory periodic tasks, established during certification of the aircraft as a limitation to the Type Certificate. Systems related tasks designed to verify that certain failures have not occured. Limiting the exposure time will have an effect on the overall failure probability of the system
  83. What are the three CMR Categorization levels?
    • One Star: Tasks and intervals are mandatory and cannot be changed or deleted without regulatory approval
    • Two Stars: Intervals may be changed, tasks cannot be changed or deleted without regulatory approval
  84. What is the purpose of System Safety Analysis?
    • To establish a "fail-safe" design concept where no single failure shall result in a catastrophe.
    • Use results of Functional Hazard Analysis (FHA) to identify and disposition all hidden failures
    • Employ Certification Maintenance Requirements (CMRs)
    • Show compliance with 525.1309
  85. What are the outputs of System Safety Analysis?
    • Dormant failures
    • Inspection tasks needed to detect those potential failures
  86. What is the definition of Safe Life (still in use)
    Structural elements have been evaluated to be able to withstand repeated loads of variable magnitude during its service life without detecting cracks (some parts are not inspectable or have critical crack lengths less than the detectable crack length).
  87. Fail Safe (no longer in use)
    Following fatigue failure or obvious partial failure of a single, Principle Structure Element (PSE), a catastrophic failure of the aircraft is not probable (a redundant load path is provided, this is no longer used in certification).
  88. What is the definition of "Structures Damage Tolerance Inspection?"
    Should serious fatigue, corrosion, or damage occur within operational life, that remaining structure can withstand reasonable loads without failure or deformation until damage is detected (relies on inspection).
  89. Structures Damage Tolerance Evaluation
    • All large Transport Category aircrat now require damage tolerant design
    • All PSEs are evaluated for damage tolerance, except where impractical in which case safe life evaluation is used and a lifed item is identified (Airworthiness Limitation)
  90. Structures Damage Tolerance Considerations
    • Probable location & modes of damage, due to fatigue, corrosion, or accidental damage
    • Crack propagation (from detectable to critical length)
    • Effect of faults and/or failure on adjacent structure
    • Damage at multiple sites due to prior fatigue
    • Residual strength
  91. What is the purpose of Damage Tolerance Evaluation?
    To determine locations of damage (of various causes) and determine required residule strength in the structure (after failure)
  92. What are the outputs of Damage Tolerance Evaluation?
    • Inspections
    • Discarded Time
    • *For all PSEs
  93. PSE
    Principal Structural Element: Failure of a PSE could be catastrophic. Maintenance Steering Group (MSG) structural analysis documentation identifies PSEs.
  94. AFM
    Aircraft Flight Manual: fundamental flying documents containing "approved data" including Limitations, Procedures and Performance data. The approved data in an AFM must be sufficient for a trained and current crew to operate the aircraft safely throughout the approved envelope of the aircraft.
  95. What are the engineering contributions to the Instructions for Continued Airworthiness?
    • Airworthiness Limitations:
    •     Mandatory replacement time intervals
    •     Related Structural and Systems
    •     Inspection Procedures

    • Structural Repair Manual
    • Certification Maintenance Requirements
  96. What are the maintenance contributions to the Instructions for Continued Airworthiness?
    • Description of Product
    • Maintenance Schedule
    • Removal/Installation instructions
    • Diagrams of structural access plates
    • Details for special inspection techniques
    • Information for protective treatement after inspection
    • Data restructured factors
    • List of special tools
    • Servicing information
  97. What is the difference between conformity and compliance?
    Drawings/designs COMPLY with standards

    Manufactured components CONFORM to drawings/designs
  98. AWL
    Airworthiness Limitation: A limitation applicable to an aeronautical product in the form of a life limit (limited time parts) or maintenance task that is mandatory as a condition of the Type Certificate.
  99. What are the severity of Failure Condition Effect labels in order of ascending severity?
    • Minor
    • Major
    • Hazardous
    • Catastrophic
  100. What are the Probability of Failure Conditions labels in order of ascending probability?
    • Extremely Improbable
    • Extremely Remote
    • Remote
    • Probable
  101. In design, where should control cables be routed in a fuselage cross section?
    • For high-wing aircraft, above passenger compartment
    • For low/mid-wing aircraft, below passenger compartment
  102. In design, where should oxygen lines be routed in a fuselage cross section?
    Always above passenger compartment
  103. In design, when routing hydraulic lines and electrical (power/signal) what should be kept in mind?
    Maximum separation with electrical lines above hydraulic in case of hydraulic leaks.
  104. In design, when routing control cables and hydraulic/electrical lines, what should be kept in mind?
    Maximum separation to avoid a snapped control cable from damaging hydraulic/electrical lines.
  105. What are the four components of the CAR Regulatory Structure?
    • The Aeronautics Act
    • Canadian Aviation Regulations
    • Standards
    • Advisory Material
  106. What does the Aeronautics Act consist of?
    • states who the act applies to
    • defines the responsibilities and authorities delegated to the Minister
    • authorizes the Governor in Council to make regulations and exemptions
    • regulates the conduct of people
  107. What is an Airworthiness Manual (AWM)?
    detailed description of procedures, classifications, specifications, or technical data which describes how to comply with the regulations
  108. What is the definition of an Aeroplane?
    a power-driven heavier than air aircraft that derives its lift in flight from aerodynamic reactions on surfaces that remain fixed during flight
  109. What is the definition of an Aircraft?
    any machine capable of deriving support in the atmosphere from reactions of the air, other than a machine designed to derive support in the atmosphere from reactions against the earth's surface of air expelled from the machine, and includes a rocket
  110. What is the definition of an Appliance?
    • any instrument, mechanism, equipment, apparatus, or accessory that is:
    •     a) Used or intended to be used in operation or controlling an A/C in flight
    •     b) Installed in, or attached to, or intended to be installed in or attached to an A/C
    •     c) not part of the airframe, engine, or propeller of that A/C
  111. What is a Design Approval Organisation (DAO)?
    an aeronautical design organisation authorised by the Minister to approve design of aeronautical products (ie: bombardier). 

    must be a corporation engaged in the design, modification or repair of an aeronautical product

    have a design organisation with an ordinary place of business in Canada
  112. Who uses a Design Approval Procedures Manual (DAPM)?
    Design Approval Organisations (DAOs) such as Bombardier, are issued DAPMs.
  113. Who is a Design Approval Representative (DAR)?
    A qualified person to whom the Minister has delegated the authority to make findings of compliance with airworthiness standards for the design of aeronautical products, or part thereof (may include the design approval of aeronautical products and/or design approval of repairs/modifications to previously approved aeronautical products).
  114. What is a Type Certificate (TC)?
    A document issued by the Minister to the holder to certify that the type design of the product complies with the certification basis applicable to the product.
  115. What does TCDS stand for?
    • Type Certificate Data Sheet which contains:
    • Type Certificate Holder
    • Product manufacturer
    • Product category
    • Product definition
    • Approved product limitations and ratings
    • Type certification basis
    • Listing of approved publications
  116. What information is on a Type Certificate (TC)?
    Operating Limits + Drawings defining the configuration + Design standards

    These are defined on the Type Certificate Data Sheet (TCDS)
  117. What are the basic steps of Type Certification?
    • Application and Basis of Certification
    • Establish Means of Compliance and Delegation
    • Demonstrate and Record Complaince in GCP
    • Type Design Approval
  118. What are the "Executive Summary" steps in acquiring a Type Certificate?
    • applicant, with conceptual design, approaches Regulator (TCCA) requesting a TC project to be initiated
    • applicant is a Canadian corporation with delegated authority from Minister to make findings
    • applicant intends to complete the design and development of A/C, complying with applicable Canadian airworthiness standards and enviro standards
    • as design evolves, the Certification (comprehensive examination to verify that design complies with airworthiness standards and enviro regs) progresses
    • upon finding the design complies with standards, Regulator issues a Type Certificate in the name of applicant corporation
  119. Can a Type Certificate be issued with umet standards?
    • The Minister may still issue a Type Certificate provided that the umet standards are compensated for or consequences are negligible
    • Certification open items will have to be documented with a way of managing risks (eg interm limitations imposed)
  120. What does ICA stand for?
    Instructions for Continued Airworthiness
  121. What is contained on the Instructions for Continued Airworthiness (ICA)?
    • Maintenance Manual: explanation of aircraft features for maintenance personnel
    • Maintenance Instructions: maintenance schedule and instructions
    • Engine Overhaul Manual
    • Airworthiness Limitions Section: safe life limited parts, certification maintenance requirements, damage tolerance/mandatory structural inspections
  122. AOC
    Air Operator Certificate: a certificate issued under applicable CARs that authorizes the holder of the certificate to operate a commercial air service
  123. What is "Maintenance" defined as?
    The overhaul, repair, required modification or inspection, or removal and installation of components of an aeronautical product, but does not include elementary work (CAR625 Appendix A) or servicing
  124. Primary Structure
    A structure that carries flight, ground or pressure loads.
  125. Servicing
    in respect of an aeronautical product, means cleaning, lubricating, and replenishing of fluids not requiring the disassembly of the product.
  126. What are the 6 supporting concepts for Type Certification?
    • The Applicable Standards for a specific certification project;
    • Level of Involvement of TCCA in the certification;
    • The concept of "Finding-of-Compliance" with standards;
    • Means and Methods of Compliance;
    • Advisory Circulars, and;
    • Delegation of Authority from the Minister
  127. What steps are required when forming the Basis of Certification (BoC)?
    Applicable Airworthiness Standard - Exemptions +/- Finding of Equivalent Safety + Special Conditions Airworthiness
  128. LoI
    Level of Involvement: The summation of TCCA activities undertaken during a certification program as the TCAA share of the overall certification activity. The objective of TCCA participation is to satisfy TCCA that aeronautical products are compliant with acceptable standards using acceptable interpretations and that they have no unsafe feature.
  129. Finding of Compliance
    A determination that an element of the design satisfies the applicable standards of airworthiness
  130. FMEA
    Failure Mode Effects Analysis: a systematic 'bottom up' method of identifying failure modes and determining effects on the next higher level. Generally used to address effects resulting from single failures. A collection of FMEAs are a summary document called a FMES.
  131. What are the steps of demonstrating MEANS of Compliance?
    • Description: Engineering inspection, vendor data and statement, service experience, drawing or evidence of approval such as FAA/TSO
    • Analysis: Failure Modes and Effect Analysis (FMEA), Functional Hazard Analysis (FHA), structural loads analysis, stress analysis, electrical load analysis and software evaluation and documentation
    • Test: Flight test, ground test, fatigue test, simulation, flammability test, environmental test and functional test.
  132. What are METHODS of Compliance?
    • Expand upon means of compliance. These are modes of proving compliance. For example, for testing:
    •     Specific (or worst case conditions required to demonstrate compliance;
    •     Any critical assumptions used;
    •     The pass/fail criteria (usually associated with 'test' as a means of compliance);
    •     An explanation of what specific levels of performance a system or component must attain to be in compliance, and;
    •     Any other information considered important in describing how compliance is to be demonstrated.
  133. AC
    Advisory Circular: documents that are prime sources of guidance concerning "means-of-compliance" for certification purposes. Produced by the US FAA and TCCA as guidance material, providing "... a means, but not the only means" for achieving compliance with an airworthiness requirement. Advisory Circulars are neither mandatory nor regulatory in nature.
  134. Name the 6 specialty areas of the TCCA Certification Branch:
    • Avionics and Electrical
    • Fuel and Hydro-mechanical systems
    • Structures
    • Powerplant and Emissions
    • Electronic Equipment Design Assurance (Software
    • Occupant Safety and Environmental Control Systems
  135. What is the purpose of Delegation during Type Certification?
    • Type certification entails performing a comprehensive examination to verify that the involving aircraft design complies with applicable standards of airworthiness
    • for each design standard item, an individual with a delegation of authority from the Minister must make a "finding-of-compliance" declaring that the design item complies with applicable standard
    • Engineering specialists within TCCA Certification Branch have delegated authority from the Minister to make findings-of-compliance with airworthiness standards
    • the Aeronautics Act permits the Minster to delegate "finding authority" to non-government organizations and individuals
  136. MMEL
    Master Minimum Equipment List: categorised list of systems, instruments, and equipment on an aircraft that may be inoperative for flight. Specific procedures or conditions may be associated with operation with the relevant item inoperative.
  137. After a Type Certificate has been issued, what documents/issues must be kept up-to-date/maintained?
    • Design changes: DAO process for design changes - Technical ACC
    • Revisions to approved documentation: AFM, AWL, addition of SRM, MMEL, etc.
    • Continuing Airworthiness responsibilities: report problems, corrective action activities, disseminate information
    • ADs issued where safety concerns realised
  138. What is "Delegation" defined as?
    Subsection 4.3(1) of the Aeronautics Act states that: "The minister may authorise any person or class of persons to exercise or perform - subject to any restrictions or conditions that the Minister may specify - any of the powers, duties or functions of the Minister under this Part, other than the power to make a regulation, an order, a security measure or an emergency direction."
  139. What are the benefits of employing Delegation during Type Certification?
    • Balances the needs and responsibilities of both industry and Transport Canada;
    • Enhances industry and Transport Canada capabilities to certify aeronautical products - broader resource base;
    • Provides authority and accountability to those who are best equipped to make decisions for the Minister;
    • Develops effective working relationships between Transport Canada and industry
  140. What are the principles of Delegation?
    • Delegation is a privilege granted by the Minster
    • The delegate is accountable to the Minster
    • Delegates are responsible for perofrming their authorized functions (cannot devolve to others)
    • Delegation is a partnership
    • TCCA and the delegate share a commitment to aviation safety
    • TCCA is responsible to the delegate
  141. Expections of the Delegate (vs TCCA)
    • Recognises Transport Canada's rold as the authority
    • Works in partnership when determining compliance
    • Communicates effectively at all levels
    • Promotes early identification of issues
    • Submits complete and accurate data
    • Maintains an effective Airworthiness Control System to ensure the quality and completeness of substantiating data
    • Maintains proficiency in area of expertise
  142. Expectations of Transport Canada (vs the delegate)
    • Sets standards for certification of aeronautical products
    • Provides assistance to industry in complying with standards (advisory material)
    • Applies a consistent process during approval
    • Plays an advocacy role at an international level
    • Ensures due diligence
    • Develops and promotes delegation in consultation with industry
    • Communicates effectively at all levels
    • Shares and coordinates information on international activities
    • Maintains proficiency in area of expertise
  143. The three types of delegation under which an applicant may obtain a delegation of authority are:
    • To an Airworthiness Engineering Organisation (AEO)
    • To a Design Approval Representitive (DAR)
    • To a Design Approval Organisation (DAO)
  144. What are the basic requirements for a Delegate?
    • Engineer or equivalent
    • Through knowledge of Canadian airworthiness requirements in specialty
    • Position on staff with authority to ensure compliance of designs
    • Not less than 1-year working relationship with TCCA
    • Not elss than 6-years related aeronautical experience
    • DAPM/EPM Limitation of privileges
  145. To prove finding of compliance, what kinds of testing are there in decending order of costliness?
    • Flight tests - whole aircraft in flight
    • Ground tests - whole aircraft on the ground
    • System tests - on bench, all connected but not installed in aicraft
    • Component tests - function of components, but separated
    • Coupon tests - samples of material, flamability, etc.
  146. Key steps when seeking a Supplementary Type Certificate are:
    • initial discussion between applicant and TCCA
    • agreement on a BoC, compliance methods, plus documentation requirements
    • develop certification plans for more complex projects
    • applicant carries out tests and submits documents
    • Transport canada review and disposition of outstanding items
    • issuance of Type Approval Certificate and letter to holder
  147. What MANDATORY documentation is required in the application for a STC?
    • Compliance Program
    • Certification Plans (complex projects)
    • Drawings defining configuration changes
    • ICAs (AWL, CMR, etc)
  148. What typical documentation is required in the application for a STC other than that which is mandatory?
    • Test reports
    • Technical reports (analysis, etc.)
    • Installation instructions
    • Electrical load analysis
    • Flight Manual Supplement
    • Maintenance Manual Supplement
    • MMEL Supplement
    • Weight and Balance change document
  149. For parts replacement, what is defined as a replacement part?
    A part intended to be installed in the place of a part specified in the type design of an aeronautical product. (example: cessna fuel quantity transmitter)
  150. For parts replacement, what is defined as a standard part?
    A part manufactured in conformity with a specification that has been established, published and is maintained by an organisation setting consensus standards or by a government. (example: elbow flared tube)
  151. For parts replacement, what is defined as a commercial part?
    A part that is not specifically designed or produced for use as an aeronautical product; that is made to a specification or catalogue description and marked under an identification scheme of the maker and whose failure does not adversely affect safety of the aircraft. (example: fire extinguisher)
  152. PMA (hint - FAA)
    Part Manufacturing Approval: FAA approval issued for the production of a modification or replacement part, which includes materials, parts, processes and appliances. For replacement parts, a PMA is both a design and production approval. For a part involved in a modification, an STC is issued to cover the design aspects and PMA for production approval.
  153. In terms of System Reliability, name failure conditions that reduce the capability of the aircraft or ability of the crew to cope with adverse conditions:
    • Safety margin
    • Crew workload
    • Misleading indication
    • Injuries
    • Condinued safe operation
    • Intended mission
    • Landing
  154. What are the steps of a Standard Flight Test Report?
    • Establish the test conditions
    • Present the data
    • Analyze/discuss the data
    • Role relate
    • Conclude
    • Recommend
    • Specification compliance
  155. What are the three legs of the Handling Qualities (HQ) "Tripod"
    • Human
    • Machine
    • Environment
  156. What are the five flight test standardized control inputs?
    • open-loop (stop flying)
    • step input (precise input amplitude)
    • pulse input (sharp momentary displacement)
    • ramp input (smooth constant rate input)
    • doublet (single sinusoid)
  157. Task Performance Criteria are typically defined in two levels:
    • Desired
    • Adequate
  158. For test flights, what are the two components of Handling Qualities (also the two axes of the Handling Qualities Rating (HQR) Scale)?
    • Performance: Precision of aircraft control, specific desired and adequate criteria, based upon realistic operational requirements
    • Compensation: A measure of "additional effort and attention required" by the task, including the concept of "workload" plus additional considerations
  159. For the HQR Scale, what are the magnitudes of the two axes in ascending order?
    • Compensation: Negligible - minimal, Moderate - considerate, Maximum tolerable
    • Performance: Desired, Adequate, Inadequate

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