Nutrition Final Exam.txt

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Nutrition Final Exam.txt
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Nutrition Final
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  1. 6 nutrition conponents in food
    carbs, protein,fats, water,vitamins,minerals.
  2. only what nutrients provide kcal/ energy
    ony protein, fats, carbs.
  3. definition of Iatrogenic Malnutrition
    a nutritional disease resulting from medical treament to patient with drugs surgery or dipudict diet.
  4. example of Iatrogenic malutrition
    anticonvulsants (increase need for folic acid)
  5. supplementations ≥ 150% RDA
    megadose. may be toxic
  6. all food turn to
    glucose   --    glycogen   --  fat
  7. metabolism def.
    energy obtain from calories.      

    metabolizing fat, protein, carbs.

    energy intake( P. C. F)→  energy output (anabolism, catabolism)
  8. steatorrhea ( fatty stools ) occurs when
    fatty acids are not absorbed
  9. major source of energy and fiber
    carbohydrate
  10. complex CHO ( polysaccharides )
    • primarily starch and cellulose (fiber)
    • found in breads, vegetables, and cereals
  11. Lactose Intolerance caused & symptoms
    a) causes: lactase insufficiency

    • b) symptoms:
    • bloating,
    • gaseousness,
    • diahhrea,
    • nausea,
    • abdominal pain after eating dairy EXCEPT cheese and yorgurt
  12. other terms for fiber
    cellulose, gums, pectins
  13. ideal fiber per day
    20 - 35 g fiber/ day
  14. too much fiber resulting
    • decreased nutrient absorption. 
    • ex. ≥35g fiber/ day
  15. food sources of fiber
    fruits, vegetables, nuts, seeds, wholegrains
  16. 2 types of fiber
    • insoluble fiber
    • soluble fiber
  17. insoluble fiber may lower the risk of
    calon cancer and diverticulosis
  18. soluble fiber may lower
    cholesterol level
  19. goal fiber per day
    at least 3g/ 100 kcal from CHO food
  20. 1g Carbohydrate(CHO)→
    1g Fiber→
    1g Alcohol→
    1g Fat→
    1g Protein→
    • 1g Carbohydrate(CHO)→x4  =4kcal
    • 1g Fiber→ x0  = 0 kcal
    • 1g Alcohol→ x7  = 7 kcal
    • 1g Fat→ x9  = 9kcal
    • 1g Protein→x4  = 4kcal
  21. 5g Carbohydrate(CHO)→
    6g Fiber→
    8g Alcohol→
    2g Fat→
    12g Protein→
    • 5g Carbohydrate(CHO)→  20 kcal
    • 6g Fiber→  0 kcal
    • 8g Alcohol→  56 kcal
    • 2g Fat→ 18 kcal
    • 12g Protein→  48 kcal
  22. Consequences of Low CHO free diet
    lose sodium, potassium, and water which accounts for weight loss and weakness
  23. fat must be used as primary source of energy, which is (abnormal 异常) and create a build up of _______
    ketones/ketosis

    • symptoms of ketosis
    • fatigue
    • dehydration
    • loss of energy
  24. characteristics of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (4个)
    • slow infant growth
    • small head/body
    • distorted facial features
    • mental retardation (low IQ)
  25. higher fat consumption increases the risk of Cancer by
    promoting cell division
  26. 2 major component of fats
    • 1) Glycerol:  common to all fats
    • 2) fatty acid: can be change
  27. fatty acids can divide to 3 catagories
    • saturated fats
    • monounsaturated fats
    • poly/unsaturated fats
  28. saturated fat increases the risk of
    heart disease
  29. examples of saturated fats
    animal fats (meat, dairy), tropical oil(coconut, palm), hydrogenated veg. oil (trans fat)
  30. meat
    saturated fat
  31. dairy cheese butter yogurt milk
    saturated fat
  32. best fat
    monounsaturated fat
  33. examples of monounsaturated fats
    olive oil, canola oil, nuts/nut oil (peanut oil)
  34. olive oil
    monounsaturated oil
  35. canola oil
    monounsaturated oil
  36. nuts oil
    monounsaturated oil
  37. poly/unsaturated fats
    increase the need of antioxidant
  38. examples of poly/unsaturated fats
    all other vegetable oil
  39. corn oil
    unsaturated oil
  40. cotton seed oil
    unsaturated oil
  41. examples of hydrogenation
    margin, store bought cookies, shortening, commercially prepared peanut butter
  42. brownie
    hydrogenation
  43. skippy jiff
    hydrogenation
  44. omega 3 fats
    lower risk of disease by decreasing inflammation
  45. examples of omega 3 fats
    salmon, flax, walnuts
  46. Olestra
    Food and Drug Administration(FDA) approved fat substitute(fake fat)
  47. physical properties of fat
    • insoluble in water
    • less dense than water
    • may burn in high temperatures
    • becomes rancid (spoiled
    • 0
  48. Lipids
    • are transported in the blood as lipoproteins
    • HDLs and LDLs
    • chylomicrons
    • fat bound to protein
  49. functions of lipids (8个)
    • 1)source of energy
    • 2)high satiety value (make us feel full)
    • 3)carrier of fat soluble vitamins (A D E K)
    • 4)palatability (good taste)
    • 5)energy reserve
    • 6)precursor of prostaglandins (hormone-like substances)
    • 7)insulation (keep us warm)
    • 8)protection of vital body organs
  50. kcal?
    10 g CHO
    1 g fiber
    3 g alcohol
    8 g fat
    totoal =133 kcal
  51. Good quality of carbohydrate
    • high fiber
    • low sugar
  52. the remaining mass in the large intestine
    fiber and water
  53. Complete protein
    animal protein from the milk and meat group
  54. Incomplete protein
    plant protein from vegetable and grain (starchy) group
  55. complementary proteins
    • peanut butter and bread
    • rice and beans
    • rice and vegetables, sprouts, salads
  56. functions of protein (5)
    • 1) formation of essential body compounds (hormones, enzymes)
    • 2) regulation of water balance
    • 3) maintenance of body neutrality (pH)
    • 4) antibody formation
    • 5) transport nutrients
  57. Protein Calorie Malnutrition
    • Kwashiorkor
    • Marasmus
  58. Kwashiorkor
    Protein defficiency only
  59. Marasmus
    protein and calorie defficiency
  60. at least 300 kcals fuels the brain for
    4 - 5 hrs
  61. why vitamin, minerals, water don't provide energy
    they don't have kcal
  62. symptoms of lactose intolerance
    • bloating
    • gaseousness
    • diahhrea
    • nausea
    • abdominal pain after eating dairy EXCEPT cheese and yorgurt
  63. tropical oil
    saturated fat
  64. palm oil
    saturated fat
  65. coconut oil
    saturated fat
  66. cholesterol free
    < 2 mg cholesterol per serving
  67. all information on the food label based on
    1 serving
  68. daily value
    percentage out of 100% RDI of a 2000 kcal diet
  69. advantages of being vegetarians
    • proper kcals
    • lower fat
    • lower saturated fat
    • higher monounsaturated fat
    • higher fiber
    • lower dietary cholesterol ( animal fat )
  70. 2000 kcal with 10% kcal from protein, how many kcal are from protein? And how many grams protein in this diet?
    10% x (2000 kcal) = 200 protein kcal

    200 protein kcal / 4 = 50g protein
  71. 2000 kcal with 20% kcal from protein, how many kcal are from protein? And how many grams protein in this diet?
    20% x (2000 kcal) = 400 protein kcal

    400 protein kal / 4 = 100g praotein
  72. major nutrients from Fruits and Vegetable group
    • Vitamin A
    • Vitamin C
    • Fiber
  73. Meat / beans group have low in
    low in Ascorbic Acid(vitamin C) and Calcium
  74. the body's need for energy for
    • BMR
    • Activity
    • Thermic effect of food
  75. convert lb. → kg
    lb. / 2.2 = ___kg

    ex: ( 110lb. / 2.2 = 50 kg )
  76. convert 440lb to kg ?
    440lb / 2.2 = 200 kg
  77. calculate BMR
    Male:
    Female:
    Male: 1 * ___kg * 24°

    Female : 0.9 * ___kg * 24°
  78. 1). A man weights 110 lb, calculate his BMR
    2). A women weights 110 lb, calculate her BMR
    convert lb to kg before calculation 

    • 1). 110lb / 2.2 =50 kg
    •      1 * 50 * 24° = 1200 kcal

    • 2). 110lb /2.2 =50 kg
    •      0.9 * 50 * 24° = 1080 kcal
  79. factors affecting BMR
    • 1). genetic body composition
    • 2). body condition
    • 3). gender
    • 4). hormonal secretion
    • 5). sleep
    • 6). age
    • 7). body temprature
    • 8). nicotine from smoking
    • 9). fasting or crash diets
  80. the major gland affects BMR
    thyroid
  81. Hyperthyroidism
    (↑↑↑)fast BMR, so ↑ food intake
  82. Hypothyroidism
    (↓↓↓) slow BMR, so ↓ food intake
  83. age group affect BMR
    • infancy
    • childhood
    • puberty
    • pregnancy
    • lactation (↑ BMR)

    BMR Begins to ↓ at age 25
  84. activity expenditure is determined by
    • body weight
    • intensity
    • duration
  85. The Thermic Effect of Food 可消化多少热量?( Hint:BMRActivity 有关 )
    10% (BMR + Activity)

    ex: 10% (1200 + 600 ) = 180 kcal

    Thermic Effect of Food 消耗最少的热量BMR 消耗最多的热量
  86. fat deposition influences health
    apple vs. pear shape
  87. cause of Obesity
    ↑ technology + ↑ junk food = ↑ obesity
  88. what are functions of water? (7)
    • 1). Solvent of Nutrients
    • 2). Growth Facilitator
    • 3). Catalyst for many biological reactions
    • 4). Lubricant of Joints
    • 5). Temperature Regulator
    • 6). Source of Trace Element
    • 7). Need Water to make urine to excrete waste
  89. Athlete's consumption of water and foodWater recommendation for Vigorous activity
    1 cup water / 15 mins
  90. Athlete's consumption of water and foodwhat to eat if become dehydrated?
    • salty food
    • water
    • fruits
  91. Sources of Sodium (Na)
    • Salt (major source)
    • baking soda, MSG
    • food and water with naturally occuring sodium
  92. Functions of Sodium
    keeps water leaving from the blood and entering the cell (avoiding edema)
  93. Functions of Potassium
    • *treament of hypertension
    • *maintain water balance
    • *maintain osmotic pressure
  94. what is most critical in treament of HTN ( hypertention)
    • Na & K ratio
    • decrease in Na increase in K
  95. Na & K both maintain
    • maintain water balance
    • maintain osmotic pressure
  96. Food sources of Flourine
    • Flourine added to water supply
    • mackerel (fish)
  97. Functions of Flourine
    • gives protection from the bone disease ( osteopathy)
    • gives protection against tooth decay
    • too much Flourine = brown motting on teeth
  98. too much Flourine
    results browm motting on teeth
  99. food source of Chloride (Cl)
    Salt (NaCl)
  100. Functions of Chloride (Cl)
    in the stomach as part of digestive juices (HCL)
  101. minerals maintain water balance
    Na & K
  102. Calcium provides rigidity in our ________
    bones and teeth
  103. Functions of Calcium
    • Bone formation along with phosphorus,
    • flourine
    • magnesium
    • calcium
    • tooth formation
    • growth
    • blood clotting
    • catalyst for biological reaction
  104. 4 mineral invovled Bone Formation
    • Ca calcium
    • F flourine
    • Mg magnesium
    • P phosphorus
  105. Factors enhance Ca absorption
    • Vitamin D
    • acidity of the digestive mass lactose
  106. Elderly are not at risk for
    decreasing Ca absorption by secretin excess stomach acid
  107. Ca and P ratio 1:1 / 1:2
    enhance filling bones healthplication
  108. Food Sources of Ca (6)
    • diary (milk, yogurt, cheese)
    • salmon
    • sardines
    • broccoli
    • almond
    • kale
  109. Milk is high in __ low in __ & ____
    high in Ca low in Fe & Vitamin C
  110. cause of Osteoporosis (3)
    • long standing dietary inadequacy
    • poor utilization or absorption
    • excrete more Ca (Alcohol cause more Ca excretion)
  111. Osteomalacia known as adult _____, and low level of _____
    • adult ricket
    • Vitamin D
  112. where we can find Phosphorus (P)?
    coke, 7up, roast beef, and milk
  113. Magnesium is absorbed on the bone surface (the 4 minerals involved in bone formation are ______________)
    • Calcium
    • Phosphorus
    • Flourine
    • Magnesium
  114. Sources of Magnesium
    fish, nuts, soybeans, and spinach
  115. Sulfur found in
    cabbage family vegetables ( cabbage, brussel sprouts, broccoli, cauliflower )
  116. Sulfur contains allyl sulfur which decrease_____________
    which decrease risk of cancer
  117. Sources of Vitamin K
    green leafy vegetables AND from the synthesis of the vitamin by intestinal bacteria

    Spinach & Asparagus provide Vitamin K and Folate
  118. Function of Iron (Fe)
    • Blood Formation
    • (Fe is part of hemoglobin which is part of the Red Blood Cell which is invloved in blood formation)
  119. Heme Iron can be found in
    Red meat
  120. Meat is the most biologically available food source of
    Iron
  121. enriched bread is a source of
    Iron (non-heme iron)
  122. milk is a poor souce of
    Fe and Vitamin C
  123. Factors affecting Iron Absorption
    Body's need for iron (large dose with ↓ need = ↓ absorption)
  124. Caffeine ( from coffee, tea, cola ) ↓ ________?
    • decreases Fe absorption
    • consume no more than 24 total ounces per day
  125. The meal with most iron absorption
    red meat, sources of vitamin C, no caffeine

    Sources of Vitamin C (starwberries and peppers)
  126. Woman in child bearing years have ↑______ so they are at ↑ risk of ________ ( _______ )?
    have ↑ Fe needs so they are at an increased risk of Fe deficient ( Anemia )
  127. Fe deficient is _____ ?
    Anemia
  128. Iron deficiency may result from
    • decreased Fe in the diet
    • blood loss
    • decreased absorption
  129. Symptoms of Anemia(Iron Deficiency)
    • ↓ red blood cells
    • fatigue
    • apathy
  130. the iodization of NaCl (salt) has ↓
    the incidence of goiter
  131. Iodine Deficiency is what kind of disease
    Goiter
  132. Goiter
    swelling of the neck as a result of the enlargement of the thyroid gland
  133. decreased iodine can cause
    enlargement of the thyroid gland
  134. ↓ Zinc = ↓ ________
    taste acuity (hypogeusia)
  135. Function of Zinc
    • reproduction
    • affects taste
    • wound healing
    • growth
    • zinc acts in metallogenzymes
  136. Food Sources of Zinc
    meat, seafood, and whole grains
  137. Function of Selenium
    • functions as antioxidant along with
    • Vitamin C
    • Vitamin E
    • Beta carotene
  138. 4 antioxidants?
    Selenium, Vitamin C, Vitamin E, and beta carotene
  139. Function of Boron
    prevents bone loss in post menopausal women
  140. Functions of Vitamin C
    • Collagen formation
    • ↓ Cancer and Common Cold
    • ↓ Formation of Nitrosamines
    • Facilitates the mineral (Fe)
    • Antioxidant
  141. Collagen
    • a cement like protein substance that binds cells together
    • part of connective tissue
  142. Vitamin C facilitates the mineral, ______, to be absorbed ?
    Iron
  143. Vitamin C may alleviate the perceived severity of the symtoms of a cold
  144. Vitamin C helps to decrease the formation of nitrosamines
    nitrosamines - cancer causing agents found in cured meats
  145. Cured meats (source of nitrosamines) 8
    Bacon, Ham, Hotdog, Polony, Pepperoni, Sausage, Scrapple, Salami
  146. Food Source of Vitamin C
    • Cabbage family vegetables (broccoli)
    • Cantaloupe
    • Citrus
    • Kale
    • Peppers
    • Potatoes
    • Strawberries
    • Tomatoes
  147. Best Source of Ascorbic Acid & Beta Carotene
    Fruit & Vegetables
  148. Deficiency of Vitamin C is called _________ disease
    Scurvy
  149. Symtoms of Scurvy
    • Swollen Gums
    • Bruise easily
    • Reopening of old wounds (not enough collagen)
  150. Functions of Folate (Folic Acid, Folacin)
    • 1. prevents and cures megaloblastic or macrocytic anemia 
    • normal nerve functioning
    • cells are immature
    • 2. involved in blood formation
  151. Blood Formation (4)
    • Folate        
    • Vitamin C
    • Vitamin B6
    • Vitamin B12
  152. Folate need ↑ when _________ ↑(during_____ & ______)
    • Blood volume ↑
    • during pregnancy & lactation
  153. Women in child bearing years need folate to
    prevent the childhood birth defect, spina bifida
  154. 1998, FDA mandates folate to be added to ______ products to ↓ the incidence of ____
    all grain products to decrease the incidence of spina bifida
  155. Food Sources of Folate
    • Concentrated Sources: source of Vitamin B (wheat germ, liver, kidney, yeast, and mushrooms)
    • Significant Sources: Fruits and Vegetables
  156. Functions of Cobalamin (B12)
    • 1.) prevents and treats pernicious anemia
    • without normal nerve functioning.
    • cells are large and immature
    • 2) involved in blood formation with
    • B6, Vitc, Floate, and B12
  157. 4 Vitamins involved in blood formation ?
    • Folate      
    • Vitamin C
    • Vitamin B6
    • Vitamin B12
  158. Food Sources of B12
    animal origin, with meat bing the best sourceroast beef, chicken, steak, turkey
  159. Strict vegetarians (vegan) must supplement with
    B12
  160. what 3 Vitamins are toxic when consumed in large amounts (3)
    • Vitamin B6
    • Vitamin A
    • Vitamin D
  161. Functions of Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)
    primarily in protein metabolism (involved in transamination and deamination)
  162. Fat Soluble Vitamins (4)
    • Vitamin A
    • Vitamin D
    • Vitamin E
    • Vitamin K

    (ADEK)
  163. Fat Soluble Vitamins are affected by
    • impaired fat digestion
    • bile
  164. Precursor of Vitamin A
    Carotene (Yellow plant pigment)
  165. Functions of Vitamin A
    • Vision - allows vision to dim light
    • (Prevent Xeropthelmia - night-blindness)
  166. Carotene stored in the
    Fat Tissue & Adrenal Glands

    maybe responsible for the yellowish tinge to the skin when grearter amounts are consumed and accessed or stored
  167. Carotenoids are phytochemicals which ↓
    ↓ the risk of heart desease and cancers
  168. Deeper yellow, orange and green = ↑
    Vitamin A and Carotene
  169. Q: which has more Vitamin A?
    1. Corn vs. Sweet Potato
    2. Iceberg lettuce vs. Romaine lettuce
    • 1. Sweet Potato
    • 2. Romaine lettuce
  170. Deficiency of Vitamin A causes
    • changes in the skin
    • Form of Dermatitis = Folliculitis
    • changes in the eyes (cornea)
    • night blindness
  171. Examples of Deeper yellow, orange and green (↑ Vit A & Carotene)
    • romaine lettuce
    • sweet potatoes
    • carrot
    • pumpkin
    • tomatoes
    • cantolope
    • papaya
    • mango
    • peach
  172. example of Bio-technology (bio-engineer food and genetic modified food)
    Golden rice
  173. Vitamin A would be toxic if consume too much
  174. precursor in the _________ is converted by ________ to make Vitamin D
    Skin               UV Rays 
  175. Vitamin D also known as the ______________
    Sunshine Vitamin
  176. Elderly are at an ↑ risk of Vitamin D deficiency due to ___________ & __________ (2)
    • ↓ exposure to the sun
    • ↓ milk intake
  177. children who fail to have a good ____________ = rickckets
    calcium / phosphrous ration in bone
  178. Adult Rickets is called ___________ ?
    Ostomalacia
  179. Calcium requirement for 19-24 year olds:
    1300 mg
  180. Vitamin E neutralizes free radicals preventing them to increase cellular damage
  181. free radicals are formed by (4)
    • 1. Breathing
    • 2. Pollution
    • 3. Somking
    • 4. UV exposure
  182. Vitamin E as antioxidant to protects oxidation of ___________ which decreases underarm odor
    Fatty Acid
  183. Food Sources of Vitamin E
    Vegetable Oils & Soybean Oils
  184. Deficiencies of Vitamin E shows up in premature infants and in people suffering from malabsorption (Cystic Fibrosis)
  185. Sources of Vitamin K
    green leafy vegetables AND from the synthesis of the vitamin by intestinal bacteria

    Spinach & Asparagus provide Vitamin K and Folate
  186. Newborns don't have the bacteria that synthesizes Vit K so___________
    supplement K are recommended

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