pharm final

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bbeckers88
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189575
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pharm final
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2012-12-15 16:12:15
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pharm final
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  1. Levothyroxine- category
    thyroid drug
  2. levothyroxine- MOA
    bind to nuclear receptors that cause gene transcription and protein synthesis
  3. Levothyroxine- unique characteristics
    • T4
    • highly protein bound
    • lower bioavailability
    • less potent
  4. levothyroxine- actions
    • slow onset
    • needs daily administration
    • drug of choice for replacement and supression therapy
  5. liothyronine- category
    thyroid drug
  6. liothyronine- MOA
    bind to nuclear receptors that cause gene transcription and protein synthesis
  7. liothyronine- characteristics
    • T3
    • high bioavailability
    • more potant than T4
  8. insulin- category
    antidiabetic
  9. insulin- MOA
    binds to insulin receptors causing activation of tyrosine kinase which phosphorylates proteins ultimately altering metabolic enzymes
  10. insulin- characteristics
    • protein
    • short half life so needs repeated injections
    • causes decreased plasma glucose which would cause hypoglycemia if used in excess
  11. insulin- actions
    • treats mainly type 1
    • ineffective orally
  12. estrogens- category
    estrogen
  13. estrogens- MOA
    bind to estrogen receptors to regulate protein synthesis
  14. estrogents- characteristics
    • highly protein bound, competes with thyroid hormones
    • linked to breast cancer
  15. estrogens- actions
    • hormone replacement therapy
    • birth control
  16. progesterone- category
    progestin
  17. progesterone- MOA
    binds to receptors to regulate gene transcription in diverse cells
  18. progesterone- characteristics
    • rapidly absorbed
    • metabolized in liver on 1st pass
  19. progesterone- actions
    • hormone replacement therapy
    • birth control
  20. clotrimazole- category
    topical antifungal
  21. clotrimazole- MOA
    reduced fungal formation by ergosterol
  22. clotrimazole- characteristics
    topical only
  23. clotrimazole- actions
    • OTC
    • low toxicity
    • treats dermatophyte infections and vaginal candidiasis
  24. isoniazide
    antituberculosis drug
  25. acyclovir- category
    antiviral drug
  26. acylovir- MOA
    inhibits synthesis of viral DNA
  27. acyclovir- characteristics
    • must be phosphorylated- requires viral kinases
    • affective against herpes and varicella zoster
    • crosses blood brain barrier
  28. acyclovir- actions
    • will only work in viral cells
    • used in IV to treat certain types of herpes
  29. amoxicillin- category
    penicillin antibiotic
  30. amoxicillin- MOA
    inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis
  31. amoxicillin- characteristics
    • beta lactam ring
    • broad spectrum
    • absorbed well from the gut
    • hypersensitivity common
  32. amoxicillin- actions
    • resistance in penicillinase producing organisms
    • penicillin allergy
  33. azithromycin- category
    macrolide antibiotic
  34. azithromycin- MOA
    binds reversibly to bacterial microsome to inhibit protein synthesis
  35. azithromycin- characteristics
    • large does required
    • effective with 7 days of treatment
    • broad spectrum (gut flora)
  36. azithromycin- actions
    • z-pack
    • frequent diarrhea
  37. tetracycline- category
    antibiotic
  38. tetracycline- MOA
    binds reversibly to bacterial ribosome and inhibits protein synthesis
  39. tetracycline- characteristics
    • chelating agent
    • very broad spectrum
    • photosensitive
  40. tetracycline- actions
    • mottling of teeth in children
    • interferes with calcium absorption
    • dont use with dairy products
  41. Trimethoprim- category
    antibiotic
  42. trimethoprim- MOA
    folate synthesis antagonist
  43. trimethoprim- characteristics
    • unchanged in the body
    • used with sulfonamdes which have high incidence of hypersensitivity
  44. trimethoprim- actions
    drug of choice for UTIs
  45. ciprofloxacin- category
    quinolone antibiotic
  46. ciprofloxacin- MOA
    ingibits DNA gyrase (uncoils DNA during transcription)
  47. ciprofloxacin- characteristics
    • broad spectrum
    • oral
    • slows breakdown of caffeine
    • unchanged in the body
    • anti-anthrax
  48. ciprofloxacin- actions
    • UTI
    • upper and lower respiratory tract infections
    • anthrax poisoning
  49. prednisone- category
    glucocorticoid
  50. prednisone- MOA
    modifies gene transcription
  51. prednisone- characteristics
    • short acting
    • strong anti-inflammatory
    • oral
    • salt retention
  52. prednisone- actions
    • protein, lipid, and carb metabolism
    • adrenal insufficiency with prolonged use
  53. aspirin- category
    NSAID
  54. aspirin- MOA
    • inhibition of cox-1 and cox-2 enzymes
    • blockage of prostaglandin synthesis at target tissues
    • decreases tissue sensitivity to chemial mediators of pain
  55. aspirin- characteristics
    • oral
    • absorbed in upper GI
    • metabolized by liver
    • risk of reyes syndrome
    • salicylism
  56. aspirin- actions
    • decreases inflammation, pain, and fecer
    • GI side effects
    • increased risk of bleeding
    • decreased risk of stroke and MI
  57. Ibuprofen- category
    NSAID
  58. ibuprofen- MOA
    • cox-1 and cox-2 inhibition
    • blockage of prostaglandin synthesis at target tissues
  59. ibuprofen- characteristics
    • oral
    • no risk of reyes syndrome
  60. ibuprofen- actions
    decreases pain, inflammation, fever
  61. acetaminophen- category
    NSAID- poor antiinflammatory
  62. acetaminophen- MOA
    • not fully understood
    • weak blockade of prostaglandin synthesis
  63. acetaminophen- actions
    analgesic and anti-pyretic (pain and fever)
  64. acetominophen-characteristics
    • N-APAP
    • conjugated in liver with glucuronic acid
    • no risk of GI bleeding
    • no risk of reyes syndrome
    • hepatotoxicity
  65. stage 1 of hepatotoxicity
    • nausea
    • vomiting
    • anorexia
    • abdominal pain
  66. stage 2 of hepatotoxicity
    • decreased symptoms
    • liver function test reveal rising aminotransferases and bilirubin
  67. stage 3 of hepatotoxicity
    peak elevations in liver enzymes
  68. stage 4 of hepatotoxicity
    recovery or death
  69. antidote for liver toxicity
    N-acetylcysteine
  70. celecoxib-category
    NSAID
  71. celecoxib- MOA
    selective COX-2 inhibition
  72. celecoxib- characteristics
    • oral
    • possible increased risk of cardiovascular disease
  73. celecoxib- actions
    • anti-inflammatory
    • no increased bleeding
    • used for inflammation and pain
  74. diphenhydramine- category
    anti-inflammatory, anti-emetic, antihistamine
  75. diphenhydramine- MOA
    H1 receptor antagonist
  76. diphenhydramine- characteristics
    • multiple modes of delivery
    • antimuscarinic
    • lipid soluble (crosses blood brain barrier)
  77. diphenhydramine- actions
    • drowsiness
    • xerostomia
    • sleep aid
    • treats nausea, vomitting, and motion sickness
  78. dimenhydrinate- category
    • anti-emetic
    • antihistamine
  79. dimenhydrinate- MOA
    H1 receptor antagonist
  80. dimenhydrinate- characteristics
    • multiple ingestion forms
    • antimuscarinic activity
    • lipid soluble (crosses blood brain barrier)
  81. dimenhydrinate- actions
    • drowsiness
    • xerostomia
    • treats motion sickness
  82. chromolyn- category
    • anti-allergy
    • anti-bronchospasm
  83. chromolyn- MOA
    inhibits histamine release in selected tissues
  84. chromolyn- characteristics
    poorly absorbed
  85. chromolyn- actions
    • nasal sprays, nebulizers, eye drops
    • prevents asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis
  86. Procaine- category
    local anesthetic
  87. procaine- MOA
    sodium channel inhibition
  88. procaine- characteristics
    • ester-linked
    • little use today
  89. procaine- actions
    • quickly metabolized
    • metabolized to PABA
    • high incidence of hypersensitivity
  90. Lidocaine- category
    local anesthetic
  91. lidocaine- MOA
    sodium channel inhibition
  92. lidocaine- characteristics
    • amide linked
    • antiarrythmic
  93. lidocaine- actions
    • most common anesthetic
    • low incidence of hypersensitivity
  94. benzocaine- category
    local anesthetic
  95. benzocaine- MOA
    sodium channel inhibition
  96. benzocaine- characteristics
    • ester-linked
    • low solubility
  97. benzocaine- actions
    • sunburn ointments
    • OTC
  98. cocaine- category
    local anesthetic
  99. cocaine- MOA
    sodium channel inhibition
  100. cocaine- characteristics
    • ester-linked
    • sympathomimetic
    • inhibits norepi uptake
    • CNS stimulation
  101. cocaine - actions
    • high abuse potential
    • vasoconstrictor
    • used topically for upper respiratory tract infections
  102. gentamycin- category
    antibiotic
  103. gentamycin- MOA
    binds irreversibly to bacterial microsome to inhibit protein synthesis
  104. gentamycin- characteristics
    • toxic to kidneys and ears!
    • bacteriocidal
  105. gentamycin- actions
    • last resort for bacterial infectsion
    • monitored for toxicity
  106. Clomiphene- category
    antiestrogen
  107. clomiphene- MOA
    partial antagonist at estrogen receptor
  108. clomiphene- characteristics
    • blocks estrogen receptors in anterior pituitary
    • causes hot flashes
  109. clomiphene- actions
    • diminishes negative feedback
    • increased LH and FSH flow
    • promotes ovulation
    • fertility drug
  110. Mifepristone- category
    antiprogesterone
  111. mifepristone- MOA
    competitive antagonist of progesterone
  112. Mifepristone- characteristics
    • the morning after pill
    • prevents endometrium from maintaining for pregnancy
    • binds to glucocorticoid receptor
  113. mifepristone- actions
    antineoplastic agent

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