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- motion with constant radius of curvature caused by acceleration being to velocity.
- A body moving in uniform circular motion has a constant speed and is accelerated toward the center of the circle.
is the speed of an object in circular motion. (the v in the following formula)
acceleration toward center of circular motion; ac = v2/r
time needed to repeat one complete cycle of motion (T).
force that causes centripetal acceleration
- is also toward the center.
- is necessary for circular motion.
Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation:
- Gravitational force is the mutual force of attraction between particles of matter.
- Orbiting objects are in free fall.
F between 2 bodies depends on
- 1. product of their masses
- 2. divided by the square of the distance between them
- F α
Newton’s law of gravitation accounts for?
- ocean tides.
- Gravity is a field force.
- Gravitation field strength equals free-fall acceleration.
- Weight changes with location.
Kepler’s laws of planetary motion:
- 1. planets move in elliptical orbits
- 2. planets sweep out equal areas in equal times
- Both the period and speed of an object that is in a circular orbit around another object depend on two quantities: the mass of the central object and the distance between the centers of the objects.
Torque and Simple Machines
- If you want to make an object move, apply a force.
- If you want to make an object rotate, apply a torque.
- is a quantity that measures the ability of a force to rotate an object around some axis.
- Torque = product of force and the lever arm.
- Γ = Fdsinθ
distance from axis of rotation to a line along which the force acts.
A machine eases the load either by changing the magnitude or the direction of the force exerted to do work but does not change the amount of work done. A machine provides a mechanical advantage.
6 simple machines:
lever, pulley, wheel & axle (gears = wheel & axle), inclined plane, screw, wedge.
Compound machine is two or more simple machines linked so that Fr of one machine becomes the Fe of the second; AMA of a compound machine is the product of the AMA’s of the simple machines it is made up of.