583 cardiac physiology

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583 cardiac physiology
2012-12-15 17:41:15
583 cardiac physiology

583 cardiac physiology
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  1. Significant blood volume increase due to endurance training
  2. Do men or women have more RBCs?
    Men  have about 10% more 
  3. Lifespan of RBC
    ~4 months
  4. Low levels of oxygen
  5. How can you detect blood doping?
    Synthetic EPO in bloodstream
  6. True or false:
    Oxygen binding capacity is same for men and women
  7. True or false:
    Oxygen carrying capacity is the same for men and women.
    False, men have higher oxygen carrying capacity
  8. Decrease in Hb levels attributed to exercise in the absence of any recognized disease process
    Occurs frequently in endurance trained athletes
    Common in female athletes (ballet dancers, gymnasts)
    Sports Anemia
  9. Is Sports Anemia a true anemia?
    No, it is an apparent anemia.
  10. When can sports anemia lead to a true anemia? (4)
    • Anemia is accompanied by subnormal serum ferritin levels
    • Below normal iron intake in the diet
    • Decreased ability to absorb iron
    • Increased rate of iron loss in sweat and urine due to exercise
  11. What are the symptoms of Sports Anemia?
    • Chronic fatigue
    • Elevated heart rate during exercise
  12. True or false:
    Epidemiological studies suggest that moderate exercise has a beneficial effect on immune system and overall health
  13. True or false:
    Highly trained endurance athletes are less susceptible to “ upper respiratory tract” infections
    False. moderate exercise minimizes the risk but extreme exercise increases the risk of URTIs.
  14. True or false:
    Exercise improves cardio after cancer.
  15. How do you calculate cardiac ouput (Q)
    Q = HR x SV
  16. What is Qmax dependent on?
    Aerobic fitness
  17. What is Q at rest?
    ~5 Llitres/min
  18. Number of left ventricle contractions per unit time
    Heart rate (bpm)
  19. Volume of blood that is ejected by the left ventricle per unit time
    Cardiac output (Q, L/min)
  20. How is max HR calculated?
    220-age +/- 8 bpm
  21. Is there a difference in max HR between trained and untrained subjects?
    No, based on age (220-age)
  22. How is heart rate reserve calculated?
    Max HR - resting HR = HR reserve
  23. Volume of blood ejected by the left ventricle per beat
    Ventricular systole
  24. True or false:
    Stroke volume is lower in females
  25. True
  26. HR x stoke volume = _______
    Cardiac output
  27. What is the HR dependent on?
    Sympathetic and parasympathetic stimuli
  28. Force that heart contracts is dependent on volume of left ventricle.
    Frank-Starling mechanisms
  29. Pressure in blood vessels (cardiac afterload)
    Mean arterial pressure  (MAP)
  30. True or false:
    Ejection fraction decreases with exercise.
    False. It increases with exercise.
  31. Proportion of left ventricular blood volume ejected per heart beat.
    Ejection fraction
  32. Is ejection fraction higher or lower in people with cardio disease or spinal cord injury?
    Lower - reduced preload so reduced ejection fraction
  33. Pressure exerted by the blood against the wall of blood vessels during the cardiac cycle
    Blood pressure (BP, mm Hg)
  34. Blood pressure measured during contraction phase
    Systolic (SBP)
  35. Blood pressure measured during relaxation phase
    Diastolic (DBP)
  36. Where is blood pressure taken for upper extremity amputees?
    Behind the knee
  37. True or false:
    Arterial blood pressure increases with age.
    True due to hardening of arteries
  38. Overall resistance offered by blood vessels to flow of blood
    Total Peripheral Resistance (TPR)
  39. How do you directly measure TPR?
    You cannot measure TPR directly. 
  40. True or false:
    TPR decreases with exercise intensity during dynamic exercise
    True, vasodilation of blood vessels
  41. True or false:
    TPR decreases with intensity of muscle contration during static exercise.
    False, increases due to vasoconstriction of blood vessels
  42. True or false?
    Many ADLs are a combo of static and dynamic activities
  43. If load is sufficiently high this is a reflex which blocks off the windpipe (you don't breath out and so traps blood in veins causing increased blood pressure.
    Valsalva maneuver
  44. Mechanical contraction and relaxation of muscle groups during dynamic exercise
    Facilitates venous return to heart (influences cardiac preload which in turn increases stroke load)
    Muscle pump Action
  45. Occlusion of blood flow during static exercise:
    Does muscle mass utilized alter the increase in blood pressure?
    No, blood pressure increase is similar regardless of muscle group
  46. Maximum force that can be generated isometrically
    Maximum Voluntary Contraction (MVC)
  47. What does occluded mean?
    Blood vessels constrict
  48. What is the best indicator of myocardial VO2 (ie. work of the heart)?
    Pressure Pulse Product (PPP)
  49. HR x SBP / 1000 = _____
    PPP (Pressure Pulse Product)
  50. Higher during static exercise (than dynamic) for a given VO2
    Caution for patients with hypertension and cardiac problems
    Pressure Pulse Product (PPP)
  51. True or false:
    Body functions more efficiently during combined static and dynamic exercise 
    False. Body functions less efficiently.
  52. During max exercise where does 84 % of cardiac output go?
  53. Does the % of cardiac output to the heart change depending on rest or max exercise?
    No, heart works harder but % is same (4%)
  54. Increased skin blood flowt o stimulate sweating and facilitate cooling
    Cardiovascular Drift
  55. Why is exercise important for stroke victims?
    Increased blood flow from exercise aids neuroplasticity
  56. Which condition?
    Blood flow has blockages in arteries, usually in lower extremities. Lack of blood flow causes degradation of tissue and is painful -- may have limbs amputated.
    Peripheral Vascular (Artery) Disease
  57. True or false:
    You can do 70% with your arms of what you can do with your legs (muscle fatigue)
  58. True or false:
    Peak HR during arm exercise is the same as what you would achieve with leg exercise.
    False, peak HR during arm is 90-95% of what you would achieve with leg exercise
  59. Lower body is more or less efficient (re: stress on the heart)?
    More efficient.
  60. 3 Reasons for differences between upper and lower body exercise.
    • -Hydrostatic forces - upper body must pump blood against gravity
    • -Smaller muscle mass - upper body reduced muslce pump results
    • -Isometric component -- upper body greater isometric compenent causing higher BP and reduces cardiac preload