• Poultry: egg production of laying hens, growth ofbroilers
What biotechnology has been introduced to supplement selective breeding?
Cloning (not really used because at a stand still)- issue = abortions, hard to reproduce, alot of tries to get a healthy animal
GM - genetically modified
Ellaborate on blind hens: why were they thought a good idea? But why are they not actually a good idea?
Good idea: to decrease feather pecking (ie canabalism), laid more eggs, consumed less feed, less feather and comb damage, seemed to enjoy a higher level of welfare
Why bad idea: a study showed that blind hens had no social life, they were all just loaners, they were dispersed and not flocky, not as much behavioural synchrony, less social aggregation, higher mortality because couldnt find feed
What is the concern about how bull dogs have been bred?
English Bulldogs suffer from many healthproblems due to the way they have been bred
brachycephalic syndrome the essence of the problem is that normal air flow from nostrils to the lungs is inhibited because have been bred for a squished in nose
Surgery to fix this and on top of this also heart burn effect
BIGGEST ISSUE: people select and are encouraged to like the bull dogs traits:
• Appeal of infant facial features
• Tradition • Good temperament
• Some of its problems are interpreted as charming personality features
• Its slow pace fits well into the lifestyle ofmany owners
• Some owners thrive on having the animals being dependent on them
• CAN THIS BE FULFILLED BY A NORMAL, NON BRACHYSEPHALICDOG?
What are the PRACTICAL ways to tix the problems of bulldog breeds? How can demand be limited
Breeders etc have also been blamed but
• As long as people are attracted to brachycephalicdogs and are willing to pay high prices forthem they will be supplied
• If not by the breeders in the dominant kennelclub then by breeders outside that club
• Or by breeders in other countries
• So the war against brachycephalic dogs is a bitlike the war on drugs
HOW TO LIMIT DEMAND:
• Find ways to make vivid in the media what difficulties many brachycephalic dogs have
• Spread the message
• Engage celebrities and opinion formers
• Focus on economic incentives
• The ability of owners to reclaim what they paid for the dog
• costs for veterinary treatments
• Limited opportunities to insure
For animal breeding what are the three groups of concerns?
• Concern for animals
– Animal welfare
– Animal integrity
• Concern for environment/nature
• Concerns for humans
What are the consequences on dairy cow do to selective breeding? what has been done for progress?
too much emphasis on milk yield and less on health
suspensory ligaments in the udder cant keep up
• Increased emphasis on functional traits in theInterbull index
• Better registration of health problems
• Increased awareness of economic value of functional traits
What is the concern with broiler breeders and selective breeding?
Broiler breeders to much emphasis was put on large body size and now they have bad leg problems
What are the concerns for the environment/ nature?
• Loss of genetic diversity
• concentration on few breeds
• many endangered breeds
• Threat to wildlife and ecological balance
What is the discussion about concerns?
There is also a discussion about how to getfrom the concerns to decisions and policies
• Here it will be relevant to include ethicaltheories
• Given that we live in a less than perfect worldother considerations than ethical ones, notleast regarding markets and economy, will alsohave to be included
What are the four ethical theories that concern breeding?*******
• Contractarianism: Only human-centeredconcerns matter
• Utililitarianism: Concerns relating to sentient beings matter. We have a duty to breed so as to maximise the well-being of actual beings
• Animal rights view: Skeptical towards the whole idea of keeping animals for production. Does not accept that animals are replaceable.
• Respect for nature: Concern regarding potential effects on nature. Unclarity about whether domestic animals belong to nature.
What is the turning point between animal breeding?
Hard to tell the difference between optimal production and animal welfare. Up to a certain point it does pay off and increase health
What have been some consumer pressures exerted?
consumer presssure ie for breeding of stronger legs in broilers
In the EU what is the legal stance?
• The European Convention regarding farm animals andthe corresponding EU-directive takes a clear stance in principle: Ban against breeding of animals which arenot fit for a production environment
• In practice the fine words are not being enforced
What has the EU done for "sustanable farm animal breeding?
Through three projects financed by the EUCommission focus has been put on ”sustainablefarm animal breeding”
• Key elements in the exercise:
• Breeders become more aware of value issues related to farm animal breeding
• Attempts are made to find a way of balancing thevarious values involved in farm animal breeding
• Ethical limits may be drawn on a voluntary basis
What are the limitations for implementing "Sustainable farm animal breeding"?
• Disagreement between stakeholders on concerns and priorities
• Economic constraints:
• breeding companies aim for economic profit
• farmers need to run profitable and competitive business
• international competition
What are some economic consideration in breeding?
• Including more traits in the breeding goal slows down progress in production
• Production ↔ income
• A few non-production traits can be included in the breeding goal without economic cost – but for most there will be an economic loss that needs to be covered, how?
What are some possible market mechanisms to enhance animal breeding?
Through product price – limited motivation to pay price premium + added value not perceived by consumer
• Indirect market pressure – credibility of retailers,supermarket chains (cf recent development in the US)
• Many labelling schemes (eg animal welfare, organic) asks for the soundness of the entire production chain
What are the conclusions about animal breeding?
• animals are being bred – and hiding our head in the bush is not an option
• A narrow and short sighted focus on production traits in farm animals and extreme traits incompanions has had negative effect on animalwelfare and human interests
• There is a lot of progress to be made to thebenefit of both animals and humans
• However, in some cases there will be a dilemma between human interests and animal welfare
• The challenge is here to put concerns for animalwelfare to work in the market
What is the problem of animal breeding in correlation to peoples knowledge?
Few people know about the issues. Or they know and are not doing the breeding or not following it