IS130 Key terms

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IS130 Key terms
2012-12-16 01:36:58
130 Terms

Key terms
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  1. E-Business
    all the activities a company performs in selling and buying products and services using computers and communication technology
  2. E-commerce
    buying and selling goods and services over the internet
  3. value chain
    a series of activities designed to meet business needs by adding value in each phase of the e-commerce process.
  4. Click-and-brick e-commerce
    mixes traditional commerce and e-commerce. Capitalizes on the advantages of online interaction with customers yet retains the benefits of having a physical store location.
  5. mechant model
    transfers the old retail model to the e-commerce world by using the medium of the internet
  6. brokerage model
    brings sellers and buyers together on the web and collects commissions on the transactions between these parties.
  7. advertising model
    an extension of traditional advertising media, such as radio and television. Directories such as yahoo.
  8. mixed model
    refers to generating revenue from more than one source
  9. intermediary model
    ecommerce sites collect information on consumers and businesses and then sell this information to other companies for marketing purposes
  10. subscription model
    e-commerce sites sell digital products or sevices to customers
  11. Business-to-consumer (B2C)
    companies sell directly to consumers
  12. business-to-business (B2B)
    e-commerce involves electronic transactions between businesses
  13. consumer-to-comsumer (C2C)
    e-commerce involves business transactions between users, such as consumers selling to other consumers via the internet
  14. Consumer-to-business (C2B)
    e-commerce involves people selling products or services to businesses such as a service for creating online surveys for a company to use
  15. e-government
    services include tax filing, online voter registration, disaster assistance, and e-trading for government employees
  16. organizational/intrabusiness e-commerce
    involves e-commerce activities that take place inside an organization, typically via the organization's intranet. (Exchange of goods or services, or info among employees)
  17. seller-side marketplace
    model is the most popular B2B. Sellers who cater to specialized markets such as chemicals, electronics, and auto components, come together to create a common marketplace for buyers - sort of a one-step shopping model
  18. E- procurement
    enables employees in an organization to order and recieve supplies and services directly from suppliers.
  19. buyer-side marketplace
    a buyer, or a group of buyers, opens an electronic marketplace and invites sellers to bid on announced products or requests for quotation (RFQs).  Buyers can manage the procurement process more efficiently, lower administrative costs, and implement uniform pricing
  20. third-party exchange marketplace
    Not controlled by buyers or sellers. Controlled by a third party and the marketplace generates revenue from the fees charged for matching buyers and sellers. These marketplaces are usually active in vertical or horizontal markets.
  21. Vertical market
    concentrates on a specific industry or market. (Utility companies, beef and dairy industries, medical products)
  22. horizontal market
    concentrates on a specific function or business process and automates this function or process for different industries.
  23. trading partner agreements
    automate negotiating processes and enforce contracts between participating businesses
  24. Mobile commerce
    using handheld devices, such as smartphones or PDAs, to conduct business transactions
  25. Voice-based e-commerce
    relies on voive recognition and text to speech technologies
  26. electronic payment
    refers to money or scrip that is exchanged electronically. Usually involves use of the internet, other computer networks, and digitally stored value systems. (Credit cards, debit cards, smart cards)
  27. Smart card
    the size of a credit card and contains an embedded microprocessor chip for storing important financial and personal information. The chip can be loaded with information and updated periodically
  28. E-cash
    a secure and convenient alternative to bills and coins, complements credit, debit, and charge cards and adds convenience and control to everyday cash transactions
  29. E-check
    the electronic version of a paper check, offers high security, speed, and convenience for online transactions
  30. E-wallets
    offer a secure, convenient, and portable tool for online shoipping. They store personal and financial information such as credit card numbers, passwords, and PINs
  31. Paypal
    is a popular online payment system used in many online auction sites. Users with a valid e-mail address can set up an account and use it for secure payments of online transactions, using their credit cards or bank statesments
  32. Micropayments
    used for very small payments on the Web. They began as a method for advertisers to pay for cost per view or cost per click.
  33. Web Marketing
    uses the web and its supporting technologies to promote goods and services
  34. search engine optimization (SEO)
    a method for improving the volume or quality of traffic to a website. A higher ranking in seach results should generate more revenue for a website.
  35. Global information system (GIS)
    works across national borders, facilitates communication between headquarters and subsidiaries in other countries, and incorporates all the technologies and applicatioons found in a typical information system to store, manipulate, and transmit data across cultural and geographic boundaries
  36. Transborder data flow (TDF)
    restricts what type of data can be captured and transmitted in foreign countries.
  37. Multinational corporation
    has assets and operations in at least one country other than its home country. Delivers products and services across its national borders and is usually managed centrally from its headquarters
  38. Multinational structure
    production, sales, and marketing are decentralized and financial management remains the parent's responsibility
  39. Global structure
    manages highly centralized info systems. Subsidiaries have little autonomy and rely on headquarters for all process and control decisions as well as system design and implementation
  40. International structure
    operates much like a multinational corporation, but subsidiaries depend on headquarters more for process and production decisions
  41. Transnational structure
    the parent and all subsidiaries work together in designing policies, procedures, and logistics for delivering products and services to the right market
  42. offshore outsourcing
    an organization chooses an outsourcing firm in another country that can provide needed services and products
  43. systems development life cycle (SDLC)
    also known as waterfall model is a series of well-defined phases performed in sequence that serves as a framework for developing a system or project
  44. planning phase
    the system designer must understand and define the problem the organization faces, taking care not to define symptoms rather than the underlying problem (Why, Who, What, When)
  45. Internal users
    are employees who will use the system regularly, and they can offer important feedback on the systems strengths and weaknesses
  46. external users
    arent employees but do use the system; they include customers, contractors, suppliers, and other business partners. Although they arent normally part of the task force, their input is essential
  47. Joint application design (JAD)
    a collective activity involving users, top management, and IT professionals. It centers on a structured workshop where users and system professionals come together to develop an application. (Detailed agenda, visual aids, screens, reports)
  48. feasibility study
    analyses a proposed solution's feasibility and determines how best to present the solution to management. It usually has five major dimensions, economic, technical, operational, scheduling, and legal
  49. economic feasibility
    assesses a systems costs and benefits
  50. technical feasibility
    concerned with technology to be used in the system. The team needs to assess whether technology to support the new system is available or feasible to implement.
  51. Operational feasibility
    the measure of how well the proposed solution will work in the organization and how internal and external customers will react to it.
  52. Scheduling feasibility
    concerned with whether the new system can be completed on time
  53. legal feasibility
    concerned with legal issues, including political repercussions and meeting the requirements of the information privacy act
  54. Requirements-gathering and analysis phase
    analysts define the problem and generate alternatives for solving it
  55. design phase
    analysts choose the solution thats the most realistic and offers the highest payoff for the organization. Details of the proposed solution are outlined and the output of this phase is a document with exact specifications for implementing the system, including files and databases, forms and reports,
  56. Computer-aided systems engineering (CASE)
    tools automate parts of the application development process. These tools are particularly helpful for investigation and analysis in large scale projects because they automate parts of the design phase
  57. prototyping
    a small-scale version of the system is developed but one that's large enough to illustrate the system's benefits and allow users to offer feedback.
  58. a proof-of-concept prototype
    shows users how a particular task that wasn't technically feasible can be done
  59. selling prototype
    used to sell a proposed system to users or management by showing some of its features
  60. implemenation phase
    the solution is transferred from paper to action, and the team configures the systems and procures components for it
  61. Parallel conversion
    the old and new systems run simultaneously for a short time to ensure that the new system works correctly
  62. Phased-in phased out conversion
    the corresponding part of the old system is retired. The process continues until the entire system is operational
  63. plunge (direct cutover) conversion
    the old system is stopped and the new system is implemented
  64. Piliot conversion
    the analyst introduces the system in only a limited area of the organization, such as a division. If the system works correctly, its implemented in the rest of the organization in stages or all at once
  65. Request for proposal (RFP)
    a written document with detailed specifications used to request bids for equipment, supplies or sevices from vendors
  66. Request for information (RFI)
    a screening document for gathering vendor info and narrowing the list of potential vendors. It can help manage the selection of vendors by focusing on the project requirements that are crucial to selecting vendors
  67. insourcing
    happens when an organizations team develops the system internally
  68. self-sourcing
    is when end users develop thier own info systems with little or no formal assistance from the info systems team. These users might not know how to write programing code but are typically skilled enough to use off-the-sheld software.
  69. outsourcing
    organization hires an external vendor or consultant who specializes in providing development services
  70. Crowdsourcing
    the process of outsourcing tasks that are traditionally performed by employees or contractors to a large group of people (a crowd) through an open call
  71. Maintenance phase
    Info system is operating, enhancements  and modifications to the system have been developed and tested, and hardware and software components have been added or replaced
  72. Service-oriented architecture (SOA)
    a philosophy and a software and system development methodology that focuses on the development, use, and reuse of small, self-contained blocks of codes (called services) to meet the software needs of an organization
  73. Rapid application development (RAD)
    concentrates on user involvement and continuous interaction between users and designers. It combines the planning and analysis phases into one phase and develops a prototype of the system. It uses an interative process (incremental development) that repeats the design, development, and testing steps as needed, based on feedback from users.
  74. Extreme programming (XP)
    divides a project into smaller functions and developers cant go on to the next phase until the current phase if finished. Each function of the overall project is developed in a step-by-step fashion
  75. Pair programming
    where two programmers participate in one development effort at one workstation. Each programmer performs the action the other is not currenlty doing
  76. Agile Methodology
    similar to XP in focusing on an incremental development process and timely delivery of working software. There's less emphasis on team coding and more on limiting the projects scope.
  77. Supply Chain
    an integrated network consisting of an organization, its suppliers, transportation companies and brokers used to deliver goods and services to customers
  78. Supply chain management (SCM)
    the process of working with suppliers and other partners in the supply chain to improve procedures for delivering products and services
  79. Electronic data interchange (EDI)
    enables business partners to send and receive information on business transactions
  80. e-marketplace
    third-party exchange that provides a platform for buyers and sellers to interact with eachother and trade more efficiently online
  81. online auction
    brings traditional auctions to customers around the globe and makes it possible to sell far more goods and services than a traditional auction
  82. Reverse auction
    invites sellers to submit bids for products and services. There's one buyer and many sellers.
  83. Collaborative planning, forecasting, and replenishment (CPFR)
    used to coordinate supply chain members through point-of-sale (POS) data sharing and joint planning
  84. Customer relationship management (CRM)
    consists of the processes a company uses to track and organize its contacts with customers. It improves services offered to customers and uses customer contact info for targeted marketing
  85. Personalization
    the process of satisfying customers needs building relationships and increasing profits by designing goods and services that meet customers preferences better.
  86. Customization
    allows customers to modify the standard offereing such as selecting a different home page to be displayed each time you open your browser
  87. Collaborative filtering (CF)
    a search for specific information or patterns using input from multiple business partners and data sources. It identifies groups of people based on common interests and recommends products or services based on what members of the group purchased or didnt purchase
  88. knowledge management
    draws on concepts of organizational learning, organizational culture, and best practices to convert tacit knowledge into explicit knowledge, create a knowledge-sharing culture in an organization, and eliminate obstacles to sharing knowledge
  89. Enterprise resource planning (ERP)
    an integrated system that collects and processes data and manages and coordinates resources, info, and functions throughout an organization
  90. structured decisions
    (programmable tasks) can be automated because a well-defined standard operating procudure exists for these types of decisions
  91. semistructured decisions
    include a structured aspect that benefits from info retrieval, analytical models, and info systems technology
  92. Unstructured decisions
    are typically one-time decisions with no standard operating procedure pertaining to them
  93. Management support systems (MSSs)
    are the different types of info systems that have been developed to support certain aspects and types of decisions. Each type is designated with unique goals and objectives
  94. intelligence phase
    a decision maker examines the organizations environment for conditions that need decisions. Data is collected from a variety of sources and processed. From this info, the decision maker can discover ways to approach the problem
  95. design phase
    the objective is the define criteria for the decision, generate alternatives for meeting the criteria, and define associations between the criteria and the alternatives
  96. choice phase
    the best and most effective course of action is chosen
  97. implementation phase
    the organization devises a plan for carrying out the alternative selected in the choice phase and obtains the resources to implement the plan
  98. decision support system (DSS)
    an interactive info system consisting of hardware, software, data, and models designed to assist decision makers in an organization. Its three major components are a database, a model base, and a user interface
  99. Model base
    component includes mathematical and statistical models that, along with the database, enable a DSS to analyze info.
  100. Managerial designer
    defines the management issues in designing and using a DSS. These issues dont involve the technological aspects of the system
  101. Technical designer
    focuses on how the DSS is implemented and usually addresses questions about data storage, file structure, user access, response time, and security measures
  102. Model Builder
    the liasion between users and designers. He or she is responsible for supplying info on what the model does, what data inputs it accepts, how the model's output should be interpreted, and what assumptions go into creating and using the model.
  103. Executive information systems (EISs)
    branches of DSSs, are interactive information systems that give executives easy access to internal and external data and typically include "drill-down" features and a digital dashboard for examining and analyzing info.
  104. Digital dashboard
    integrates info from multiple sources and presents it in a unified, understandable format, often charts and graphs. It offers up-to-the-minute snapshots of info and assists decision makers in identifying trends and potential problems
  105. group support systems (GSSs)
    assist decision makers working in groups. These systems use computer and communication technology to formulate, process, and implement a decision-making tast and can be considered a kind of intervention technology that help overcome the limitaitons of group interactions
  106. groupware
    assists groups in communicating, collaborating, and coordinating their activities. It is a collection of applications that supports decision makers by providing access to a shared environment and information
  107. electronic meeting systems
    enable decision makers in defferenct location to participate in a group decision-making process
  108. Geographic info systems (GIS)
    captures, stores, processes, and displays geographic info such as showing the location of all city streetlights on a map
  109. Artificial intelligence (AI)
    consists of related technologies that try to simulate and reproduce human though behavior, including thinking, speaking, feeling, and reasoning. AI technologies apply computers to areas that require knowledge, perception, reasoning, understanding, and cognitive abilities
  110. Robots
    perform well at simple, repetitive tasks and can be used to free workers from tedious or hazardous jobs
  111. expert systems
    mimic human expertise in a particular field to solve a problem in a well-defined area
  112. Knowledge acquisition facility
    a software package with manual or automated methods for acquiring and incorporating new rules and facts so that the expert system is capable of growth
  113. knowledge basis
    similar to a database, but in addition to storing facts and figures it keeps track of rules and explanations associated with facts
  114. Knowledge base management system (KBMS)
    used to keep the knowledge base updates with changes to facts, figures, and rules
  115. explanation facility
    performs tasks similar to what a human expert does by explaining to end users how the reccomendations are derived
  116. inference engine
    by using different techniques, such as forward and backward chaining, it manipulates a series of rules.
  117. forward chaining
    a series of "if-then-else" condition pairs is performed
  118. backward chaining
    the expert system starts with the goal first-the then part- and backtracks to find the righ solutions
  119. Case-based reasoning (CBR)
    a problem solving technique that matches a new case with a previously solved case and its solution, both stored in a database. After searching for a match, the CBR system offers a solution. If no match is found the human expert must solve the problem
  120. intelligent agent
    an application of artificial intelligence that are becomming more popular. Consist of software capable of reasoning and following rule-based processes
  121. shopping and information agents
    helps users navigate through the vast resources available on the web and provide better results in finding information. These agents can navigate the web much faster than humans and gather more consistent, detailed information.
  122. Personal agents
    perform specific tasks for a user, such as remembering info for filling out web forms or completing e-mail addresses after the first few characters are typed
  123. Data-mining agents
    work with a data warehouse and can detect trend changes and discover new info and relationships among data items that aren't readily apparent
  124. Genetic algorithims (GAs)
    are used mostly in techniques to find solutions to optimization and search problems
  125. Natural-language processing (NLP)
    was developed so that users could communicate with computers in their own language
  126. Pull technology
    a user states a need before getting info as when a URL is entered in a web browser so that the user can go to a certain website
  127. Push technology
    a web server delivers information to users who have signed up for this service instead of waiting for users to request the information be sent to them
  128. Application service providers (ASPs)
    provide access to software or services for a fee
  129. software as a service (SaaS)
    On demand software, is a model for ASPs to deliver software to users for a fee; the software might be for temporary or for long-term use
  130. Virtual reality (VR)
    uses computer-generated, three-dimensional images to create the illusion of interaction in a real world environment
  131. egocentric environment
    the user is totally immersed in the VR world
  132. exocentric environment
    the user is given a "window view". Data is still rendered in 3-D, but users can only view it on screen. They can't interact with objects, as in an egocentric environment
  133. cave automatic virtual environment (CAVE)
    a virtual environment consisting of a cube-shaped room in which the walls are rear-projection screens. CAVEs are holographic devices that ceate, capture, and display images in true 3-D form
  134. Virtual world
    a simulated environment designed for users to interact via avatars
  135. avatar
    a 2-D or 3-D graphical representation of a person in the virtual world, used in chat rooms and online games
  136. radio frequency identification (RFID)
    a small electronic device consisting of a small chip and an antenna. This device provides a unique identification for the card or the object carrying the tag.
  137. wireless fidelity (Wi-Fi)
    a broadband wireless technology. Technology can be transmitted over a short distances - typically 120 feet indoors and 300 feet outdoors - in the form of radio waves
  138. Worldwide interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX)
    broadband wireless technology based on the IEEE 802.16 standards. Designed for wireless metropolitan area networks and usually has a range of about 30 miles for fixed stations and 3 to 10 miles for mobile stations
  139. Bluetooth
    can be used to create a personal area network (PAN). Wireless technology for transferring data over short distances (usually within 30 feet) for fixed and mobile devices
  140. Grid computing
    involves combining the processing powers of various computers. Users can make use of other computers resources to solve problems involving large-scale, complex calculations, such as circuit analysis or mechanical design
  141. Utility (on-demand) computing
    similar to the SaaS model and provides IT sevices on demand. Users pay for computing or storage resources on an as-needed basis, similar to paying for utilities
  142. Cloud computing
    incorporates many recent technologies including the SaaS model, web 2.0, grid computing, and utility computing
  143. nanotechnology
    incorporates techniques that involve the structure and composition of materials on a nanoscale