BIO 150 MT2-FINal

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BIO 150 MT2-FINal
2012-12-17 21:55:03
fucking hate biology

a bunch of fucking garbage
Show Answers:

  1. Are fungi closer related to plants or animals?
    have a much closer common ancestor with animals
  2. Are protists a true fungi?
    No their evolution split long ago 
  3. oomycetes (water mold)  vs  Basidiomycetes (true fungi)
    • oomycetes (water mold)(protist) -
    • cell walls not made of celluouse 
    • have haploid and diploid stages 
    • homokaryotic (multiple similar nucleii in one cytoplasm)

    • Basidiomycetes (true fungi)
    • cell walls made of chitin
    • has haploid & diploid stages BUT also has a heterokaryotic stage (n+n) 2 difrent nucleii exist side by sid ein one cytoplasm.
  4. most fungi reproduce sexualy and asexually

    What are the advantages? Is the zygote the result of fertalization?
    1. the advantages are the genetic varyation of sexual reproduction and the guarenteed successes of current generation

    2. no it is not, there is no sperm and egg in fungi, rather the hyphea fuse together (why it is heterokaryotic)
  5. Which is the dominant phase of basidiomyctes (true fungi)
    The heterokaryotic (n+n) stage is dominant.
  6. what is the difference in the nutritional mode of fungi and animals?
    Fungi are absorbitive- they disrete digestive enzymes then suck the shit up

    we have a more complex digestive system and keep the enzymes in the stomach etc.
  7. what are the 5 types of fungi
    • Chytrids
    • Basidiomyctetes
    • Ascomyetes
    • Glomeromycetes
    • Zygomycetes
  8. Lichen?
    is a algea cell + fungal hyphea symbiosis

    • can grow without soil = pioneer species
    • very sensitive to air quality = indicator species
  9. animal cells vs plant cells
    animalls have a plasma membrane & extra celluar matrix

    plants have a cell wall
  10. what is the bastula gastrula?
    • egg + sperm = zygote (fertalized egg)
    • cells divide then form a hollow sphere (the bastula)
    • bastula developes a cleavege furrow (gastrulation)

    the cleavege furrow developes into the exoderm, endoderm & mesoderm = the completed gastrula
  11. what are hox genes? plant and/or animals?
    only in animals

    they control the anterior-posterior axis and segment oriention

    (why body parts are where they are)
  12. three things that lead to the cmabrian explosion
    1. hard body covers = more protection from predators

    2. high concentrations of O2 = more active life style

    3. Hox genes = benifiacl body structure
  13. sponges = proifera?
    have no true tissue and are not semetric

    they are suspension feeders

  14. cnidarians (jellies)
    true tissue radial symetry

    a gastrovascular cavity with 3 functions (digestion, distrubution, hydrostatic skeleton)
  15. hox genes?
    determine what body parts go with what segments

  16. hox genes in evolution
    gene order i.e. dody part to segment corelation the same for all animals

    so benificail it has not really ever changed

    probably common ancestor colonial protist ~1bya
  17. what are invertabrets?
    no vertabrea column

    95% of known animals are invertabrea

    live in every habitat on earth
  18. bilaterals  i.e. protosomes vs duetrosomes
    protosomes = mouth first (flatworm, nematod, annelids, arthropods, molluscs)

    duetrosomes = ass first (echnioderms[starfish], chordates[post anal tail])
  19. protosomes (moputh first) can be broken into two groups
    lophotrozoans = flatworms, molluscs, annelids

    ecdysozans = nematods and arthropods
  20. coral reefs
    are a form of cindarian

    • eco importance= huge habitit for others
    • enviro importance = (like lichen) very sensitive to water quality = indicator species
  21. flatworms = platyhelmminthese
    are acoelomates = no coelom

    • 1 light sensitive eye spots
    • 2. chemical detecting flaps
    • 3. simple brain
    • 4.nervous tissue = signals through body
  22. tape worms (3 things)
    they have hooks and suckers to latch on to host

    no mouth or digestive trac (they live in an enviornment of already digested stuff)

    they are hermaphroditic because they dont interact with partners (they live in a stomach)
  23. mollusks + snails slugs etc.

    4 body parts & main significance
    main body parts = foot, viceral mass (holds organs) & mantle (seperates shell from viceral mass) & radula(tiny spiked tounge)

    1st time we have a seperate mouth and ass = specialized digestive trac
  24. molluscs in general
    true coelomo, open cirulatory system, ciliated larva (moving unshelled larvae)

    made of   gastropods-(snails and slugs)  bivalves-(clams oysters) cephalopods-(octopus and squid) & chitons(that thing i found at dads house)
  25. gastropods
    snails and slugs

    largest fgroup of mollusk

    long projections on sea slugs are gills

    slugs lost mantel and shell during evolution
  26. bivalves
    shells in two halves

    suspension feedes ( cirulate and filter)

    no distinct head, no radula(spiny little tongue)

    move by flapping shell
  27. cephalopods
    • shell (nautalis), internal shell (squid)  or no shell (octapus)

    they are predators

    large brain, eyes, most inteligent invertabreate
  28. chitons
    like that thing i found at dads, small, ribbed, oval shpe body
  29. moluscs and extinction
    1/2 of all molusks extinct....very important as their filtre feeding cleans water
  30. anelids = segmented worms 

    their body structure, movement and importance
    many body structures repeated in each segment (digestive trac not segmented)

    • longitudal muscle, segmented walls, bristles 
    • **closed circulatory system

    • 1. they airate soil
    • 2. they decomposers
  31. Arthropods = insects arachnids & crustaceans
    • segmented animals w/ jointed appendages
    • exoskelloton (molting = get rid of exoskelloton for growtrh)
    • **open circulatory system

    chitin (smae as in fungus) thickness varies for need throughout body
  32. which organisms have open circulatory systems?

    Which have closed circulatory systems?
    open = anthropods & molluscs (the both have hard outer shell)

    closed = annelids & vertabrates (structure is all internal)
  33. why are insects so succsessfull

    why should i give a shit
    reproduce quickly = short generation time = lots of offspring

    they can fly but still have legs = extreme mobility

    water proof coating = no dehydrating

    i should give a shit because: great pollinators but can also destroy crops  good/bad
  34. what are the 3 life stages of arthropods?
    larva = eat & grown

    pupa = go dormant and change body structure

    adult = do what ever the fuck they do

    *all stages tend to live in and eat diffrent from the other stages to reduce competition
  35. what and why are echinoderms closer related to chordata or cinarians?
    these are things like starfish, urchins and sea cucumbers

    closer related to chordata because deutruesomes
  36. interesting features of sea star
    • 1. regeneration of limbs
    • 2. stomach goes inside out
    • 3. vascular system (circulatory system) ends in suction feet
  37. sponges
    no body symetry no true tissue
  38. cnidarians

    radial symetry 2 tissues (gastroderm & epiderm)
  39. Platyhelminthes
    • flat worms
    • bilateral symetry
    • 3 tissues
    • no true coelom
    • one opening (protrosomes)
  40. mollusks
    • bivalves, snails, slugs, & cephalopods (octopus, squid)
    • moth and asshole
    • coelom, open cirulatory system
  41. arthropods
    • insects, crustaceans, arachnids
    • segmented with jointed apendages
  42. echinoderms
    • starfish and urchins
    • duetrouesomes
    • radial symetricadult
    • bilateral larvea
    • water vascular system
  43. 4 features of chordata
    • notochord (skelletal support)
    • pharyneagla slits (filter feed in mouth not entire digestive tract)
    • dorsal hollow nerve chord (others always solid)
    • post anal tail (movement)
  44. connection between tunicates and lancelets
    tunicate larvea resembles lancelet adult
  45. cartilaginous fish
    • sharks and rayas
    • head with brain   vertabral column     jaws-new feeding tech
    • skeleton made of flexible cartilage (this evolved from real bone so it is more advantageous)
    • electrosensors in head for elec signals
    • lateral line sytem detects changes in h2o pressure
  46. bony fishes
    • 27,000 species
    • gills covered with operculum (flaps to move water, can breath without moving [sharks cant])
    • swim bladder (later evolved to lungs)
  47. tetrapods
    • 4 limbed fuckers
    • neck to hold head up and look around
    • adaptions for moving onto land (sensory and locomotion)
  48. types of tetra pods (4)
    1. amphibians - reproduction depends on water, gas exchange via moist skin (salamanders frogs toads)

    2. reptiles - amniotic eggs, dry skin (lizards snakes turts crocs dinos )

    3. birds - flight, reduced weight hollow bone, acute senses sight/brain, **4 chambered heart

    4.mamalas - MME marsupials, monotremes eutherians, mammary glands, hair, efficent respitory/circulatory, differentiated teth, large brains.
  49. 3 types of mamals  hint MME
    monotremes - lay egg, milk pours onto belly (no nips)

    marcupials- give birth to tiny embryo put in sack

    eutherians- birth to fully developed young
  50. what is ecology?
    the interaction of organisms with each other and their natural enviornemnt
  51. Abiotic vs biotic
    the two factors that relate primarily to the study of ecology

    abiotic = non living componets of the biosphere

    biotic = living componetns
  52. 4 levels of eco system study
    1. organism level - how an organism survives

    2.population level - how/what factors effect the population, how does the poopulation survive

    3. community level - how do populations survive in relation to other organisms

    4. ecosystem level - how does everything come together including abiotic factors
  53. Abiotic factors - energy
    terrestrial ecosystems - seldom a problem although forest do create competiotion for sun light

    aquatic - sun light filtered out by water, icro organisms and suspended particles. light only to so much depth. RESULT = photo synthesis near surface

    dark enviornemnts - energy derived from inorganic material - chemoautotrophs
  54. abiotic factors - temperature
    temperature greatly effects metabolism

    most organisms cannot maintain an active metabolism bellow 0c or above 45c
  55. abiotic factors - water
    essential to all life

    terrestrial - danger of drying out thus water retaing/proof skin

    aquatic - solute concentration
  56. abiotic factors - nutrients
    nutrient avalibility controls the amount of plant growth or the amount of primary productivity
  57. abiotic factors - other aquatic factors
    dissolved oxygen, salinity, ph etc
  58. abiotic factors - other terestrial facators
    wind cuases dehydration and wind chill
  59. marine biomes
    estuary - most productive, salty ocean water + nutrient rich fresh

    wetlands - mixing of terrestrial and aquatic, important for H2O storage and filtering
  60. fresh water biomes
    • lakes and ponds
    • go through seasonal mixing in spring and fall
    • 4c water always at bottom as it is more dense

    • rivers - clear cold low nuets at sourse
    •             warmer nuet rich lots of life down stream
  61. terrestrial biomes
    foundation of terrestrial biomes = plants = food/shelter

    geographic distrubution depends on - temp/percip
  62. types of terrestrial biomes (8)
    tropical dry forrest - north/south of rain forrest - less rain = prolonged dry season

    tropical rain forrest = constantly wet, huge # species

    deserts - low percipitation, temperature veries really hot and really cold (human activities creates desertifacation)

    temperate grass lands - moderate percip and temp but extreme droughts through out the year. susebtibal to fire and large herbivores

    temperate broad leaf forrest - hot summer cold winter, trees loose leaves to conserve energy in winter (more open then tropical, also less species and thick debris layer)

    temperate rainforest- mix of coniferous and decidouses, not as extreme as tropical or coniferous

    coniferous forrest - long cold winter, short wet summer, high percip in form of snow

    tundra - permafrost = trees cant grow
  63. what is behavoir?
    how organisms react

    muscles and glands under the control of the nervouse system

    a response to internal or external ques
  64. what is behavoir ecology? proximate vs ultimate
    how behavoir has evolved over time.

    proximate questions are how they evolved

    ultimate questions why they evolved
  65. fixed action patterns - think of the goose and the egg
    innate behavoir (born with)

    under genetic control

    preformed the same way by all individuals

    can be improved from generation to generation (they evolve)
  66. genes and the evoirnement
    some genes are responsible for behavoir e.g. fruit fly court ship

    some envoirments are responsible for behavoir e.g. mother/pup relationship in rats
  67. 7 types of learning
    1. habituation - simplest form of learning, loss of response to repeated stimuli, makes sense because diverts attention from important stimulus

    2. imprinting - limited to a specific (vaulnerable) time period, it is irreversible (think about baby ducks and who their mommy is)

    3. spatial learning - use of land marks, kinesis(innate, random movement in response to stimulus) or taxis (response towards or away from a positive or negative stimulus)

    4. cognitive mapping - animals capable of creating a map in their mind, memorization of food sources, migration by stars

    5. associative-learning - stimulus + behavoir = reward/punishment. classical conditioning (pavlov) arbitrary stimuls is associated with outcome. Opperant conditioning (skinner) trial & error. own actions create a pos/neg effect learning - learning by observation of more experienced others. monkey warning calls. which mean which.

    7. cognition & problem solving - (percieve, store, integrate & use)  Cognition = recognition of same/diffrent (insect follows same color through maze) Problem solving = applying past experience to over come new obstacle
  68. foreaging a cost/benifit analysis
    • foraging = search for specific foods
    • generalist eat everything e.g. crow
    • specialists = specific foods e.g. coala=eucalyptus

    ***what foods brings the most energy with least expenditure
  69. communication
    sending of, reception of and response to a signal

    • through body language, noise or phermone
    • **most important communication is courtship rituals

    e.g. honey bee and waggle dance (type of food, distance to source, angle from sun to source)
  70. why does mating need eleborate courtship rituals? (3)
    to indicate they are not competing for something

    to ensure same species and opposite sex

    that they are adult and fertile
  71. 3 types of mating systems
    1. premiscuous = no lasting bond seperate after sex

    2. monogomous = share parental care (can be seasonal or life time)

    • 3. polygamous = polgymy-on male lots female
    •                           polyandry-one female many male
  72. 2 reasons for different mating styles?
    • 1. needs of the young = do they need lots of food/protection etc... large need = monogomus,  low need = 1 parent is suffiecent

    • 2. certianty of paternity = lots of off spring with many parrents, if you dont know that its yours are you going to waste time raising it
  73. abnormal behavoir, causes?
    pollution can cause abnormal behavoir by enhancing or diminishing the proper level or hormones

    often with ddt, pcb , dioxin
  74. what is social behavoir?
    the interaction of two or more animals mostly withing the same species

    e.g. hunting, maiting, protection
  75. territorial behavoir
    territories used for feeding mating and living

    size depends on use

    territorial rights proclaimed continually (always need to display its yours)

    benefits = reduced constant confrontation, protection of availible resources.
  76. agonistic behavoir (think of antagonistic)
    anything like fighting

    strenght testing rituals

    benefit is to settle conflict w/ lowest energy expenditure and maximum safety
  77. dominance hierarchys
    a 'pecking order' alpha vs omegas the alpha doesnt have to display dominace and challege every individual

    alpha controls mating/breeding of omegas based on resource avalibility
  78. altruistic behavoir  reccipporical altruism
    reducing the fitness of an individual to increase fitness of the population

    warning call, alerts everyone to be careful but then predator knows where you are

    i help you know you help me later
  79. what is a population?
    group of individuals of the same species surving in a pre-determined area

    they depend on the same resources

    deal with same envoirnmental facotrs (abiotic and biotic)

    interact (social behavior) and breed
  80. how and why do we study a population
    numerous ways to study

    • to identify endagered species
    • to identify the spread of pest/disease/parasite
  81. why do populations vary in size?
    growth = births and immigration

    decline = deaths and emmigration
  82. density and 3 dispersion patterns
    density = # of organisms/units (food source, area etc)

    • dispersion
    • clumped - resources not evenly distributed
    • uniform - common in a terrestrial setting (nesting etc)
    • random - such as wind blown seeds
  83. what is a life table / surviorship curve? why useful?
    it identifies the most vaulerable stage of a life cycle

    percentages used to compare species with varrying life spans
  84. exponential vs logistic growth
    logistc more realistic, considers limitting factors (space, food availibility etc)

    exponential  G=rN

    logistik G=rN*((k-n)/k)             k & n limmiting factors
  85. what is a community?

    how to define boundries?

    how is a community effected by abiotic factors
    all living organisms interacting with each other

    boundries are varieble based on what is being studied and what the goals of reaserch are

    the populations within a community will adjust their niche depend on the abiotic factors
  86. what is a niche? 2 types
    the specific sums of everything needed for an organism to survive

    no two species have exactly the same niche...they may be very similar but one is always somewhat different

    • 1. fundemental = possible niche
    • 2. realized = actual niche
  87. inter specific interactions  (5)
    1. competiotion - where niches over lap, a resource needed by both parties....**lowers carrying capacity

    2.mutualism- both partners benifit e.g. coral animals and dinoflagelates or vascular plants and microriza

    3. predation - creates a negative impact on preys reproduction , is the cause of many adaptions to avoid predation

    4. herbivory - not as dramatic as predation but similar...thorns and toxins major defense...also tritrophic interaction= special defense of mimicing an already occupied space and atracting the predators of your predator

    5. parasites and pathogens - parasite = live on host....pathogen=cause of disease........
  88. what is primary production
    the conversion of inorganic to organic compounds to be used as energy

    • bet vs gross is not the same
    • largest net = rainforest and coral reefs (limited geographic area)

    ocean = low net but due to huge geographic area gross is higher
  89. what are the 5 major threats to biodiversity?
    • habitat loss
    • introduced (invasive) species
    • over exploitation
    • pollution
    • global warming