What is the difference between monitoring and surveillance?
Monitoring: noting and recording
Surveillance: noting, recording, and responding
What are the types of surveillance?
Targeted: looking for a specific disease
Active: going and looking for it (ie testing herd or bull) *or mosquitop traps for West nile
Passive: uses records that already exist that were taken for other reasons (ie examining pregnancy records)
Why where chickens put on the boarders between manitoba and sask, and alberta and montana?
as indicators of west nile
How do we know a change in feed laws helped get rid of BSE?
Through BSE surveillance
brain samples sent in because it is a reportable disease
met OIE surveillance standards
***What is the purpose of surveillance?
evaluation of disease control
international trade- surveillance post outbreak, and freedom from disease
What population is examined?
media (google ie indicator of flu outbreak)
sentinel ie monitor vaccinated bird flock
targeted: go out and look
syndromic: taake present complaints
What is Rumor surveillance?
watch for trends
problem is to monitor the systems
What are the components of a surveillance system?
collection of info
dissemination of knowledge (process and get out to people)
recovery of industry
Ellaborate on the Canadian Aviaqn Influenza surveillance
Wild bird surveillance
surv. happens in domestic bird poultry when clinical signs suggestive of notifiable AI are reported
surv. when notifiable AI is detected
Pre-slaughter surv in commerical poultry as well as active targeted sureveillance
voluntary enhanced surb. in the poultry genetic exporter sector
si confident no AI found in a coutnry
What is the OIE and why is it significant in surv.
Now called world organization for animal health
set up to help control trade and diseased animals
set international trade regulations with disease with WTO
member countries can chose to report to OIE
has a summarized report on data bas
every OIE member can post disease
What is AVSN?
Alberta Veterinary Surveillance Network:
disease investigationreportable disease under Animal Health act
notifiable disease under the animal health act
vet practice surveillance
disease investigation network
participating vets submit info for time they see cattle at a farm, auction market, cmmunity pasture, or in a clinic
enter data ontop website
disease or non disease visit
number on the farm,, syndrome, symptoms of diease, nuimber affected
shared data base fpr swine, small ruminants and poultry
if find unsual number can invesitage or an unusual sign (ie ulcers around mouth will want to invesitage to make sure it is not foot and mouth)
What are some examples of surv. and responses by AVSN?
-Fed/prov req for hatching supply flock
-AB regulates SE in conjunction with egg indusry
What are the conclusions about surveillance
surv. is used to support moevemtn of animals and animal products
works at flock, regional and national levels
several ways to do surv.
What is the WTO
deligate responsibility of the animal health products to the OIE
The WTO is the only global international organization that deals with the rules of trade between nations
At the heart are the WTO agreements negotatied and signed by the bulk of the world's trading nations and ratified in their parlaimentsthe goal is to help producers of goods and services, exporters, and importers conduct their business (goal = free trade)
it is the countries parlaments decision whether or not to abide by those rules and guidlines
What are the issues behind safe food?
How do you ensure that a countrys consumers are being supplied with food that is safe to eat? by your standards (diffe countries have different standards)
and at the same time how can you ensure that strict health and safety guidelines are NOT being used as an excuse for protecting domestic producers?
health = a non tariff barrier
The Sanitary and Phytosanitary agreements take care of this
Who is responsible fore improving animal health worldwide?
How do countries ensure the imports/ exporst of animals and animal products are safe?
** risk assessment
Ellaborate on RISK ASSESSMENT
risk assessment (what is the likelihood and consequence of hazard importation?) canada does its own assessment of other countries diseases
risk management (Id and use measure to reduce risk)
risk communications (exchange of info including preception of risk among the parties)- OIE is a means of communication
Ellaborate on EQUIVALENCE
cant demand more of others than your internal standards end results can be similar even if methods are different
use OIE standards preferably
if you use higher standards they must be scientifically defendable
cannot demand of exporter more than is demanded internally
so under the WTO have to let product in if its equivalant to to others already existing imports
What Health measures are taken by exporting and Importing countries?
Exporting Country:-zoning ( prove no transport back and forth ie walk main highways where there are no farms)
-testing on farm
-food products treated
Importing Country -Quarantine on arrival
-testing on arrival (build specialised processing plant deemed appropriate by WTO)
In evaluating veterinary services what do veterinarians have to have the ability to do?
ability to survey animal population
ability to diagnose: education and facilities ie labs
Traceability- of animal and product movement
Antimicrobials- regulate and monitor residues (some drugs are only vet presctiption)
What happens if a country does not meet standards?
They are given time to improve their standards and then must redo risk assessment, vet assesmment