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A role is a
set of software features that provides a specific server function. Examples of roles include DNS Server, DHCP Server, File Services, and Print and Document Services.
Role services are
specific programs that provide the functions of a role. Some roles, like DNS, have a single role service. Other roles, like Print and Document Services, have multiple role services such as the LPD Service for UNIX printing and Internet Printing. You can think of a role as a group of programs, with each role service being a sub-component of the role.
A feature is a
software program that is not directly related to a server role, but which adds functionality to the entire server. Features include management tools, communication protocols or clients, and clustering support.
Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS)
AD DS is a distributed database that stores and manages information about network resources, such as users, computers, and printers. The AD DS role:Helps administrators securely manage information.Facilitates resource sharing and collaboration between users.Is required to be installed on the network to install directory-enabled applications such as Microsoft Exchange Server and for applying other Windows Server technologies, such as Group Policy.
Active Directory Certificate Services (AD CS)
AD CS is an identity and access control feature that creates and manages public key certificates used in software security systems. The AD CS role:Provides customizable services for creating and managing public key certificates.Enhances security by binding the identity of a person, device, or service to a corresponding private key.Includes features that allow you to manage certificate enrollment and revocation in a variety of scalable environments.
Domain Name System (DNS)
The DNS service maps IP addresses to logical hostnames. DNS servers provide name resolution services, providing IP addresses for known hostnames or hostnames for known IP addresses. With Windows Server 2008, the DNS service provides support for IPv6 addresses.
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)
The DHCP service provides IP addresses and other IP configuration information for network hosts. Host computers contact the DHCP server at startup to obtain IP address, default gateway, DNS server, and other configuration information. With Windows Server 2008, the DHCP service supports IPv6 addressing and configuration information.
Add the File Services role to manage network file sharing. While you can share folders on the server without adding the File Server role, adding the role provides additional services such as:The Distributed File System (DFS) service provides a way to store copies of shared folders on multiple servers.The File Server Resource Manager (FSRM) includes features for managing quotas by user, restricting files that can be saved on a server, and generating file reports.Services for Network File System (NFS) add the capability to provide access to files through the NFS protocol, commonly used by UNIX computers.
Print and Document Services
Adding the Print and Document Services role adds a new print management console that allows you to manage printers on multiple servers. New with Windows Server 2008, you can also publish printers in Active Directory, thereby creating printing objects on client computers automatically for shared or network printers.
Windows Sharepoint Foundation 2010
Windows Sharepoint Foundation 2010 provides collaboration tools and a platform for developing Web-based applications. Sharepoint integrates with Microsoft Office to facilitate sharing and managing documents. Sharepoint is added as a separate download.
Network Access Protection
Network Access Protection (NAP) is a collection of components that allow administrators to regulate network access or communication based on a computer's compliance with health requirement policies. NAP gives you the ability to restrict access for non-compliant computers as well as to provide access to updates or health update resources to allow computers to become compliant.
Remote Desktop Services
Remote Desktop Services allows remote clients to run applications on a session host server or to access a session host server desktop. A session host server uses its RAM, CPU and hard drive to process a client request and send back the results.
Internet Information Services (IIS)
Internet Information Services (IIS) is the Web server service. Use IIS to host internal and external Web sites or services that communicate using HTTP and to provide support for ASP.NET applications accessed through a Web browser. IIS is also used by many other roles to provide Web-based administration or access.
Windows Deployment Services (WDS)
Windows Deployment Services (WDS) is a disk imaging solution that you can use for remote deployment and automated installation of Windows Server 2008, Windows 7, and earlier versions of Microsoft operating systems.
BitLocker is a security feature that protects a server by encrypting the operating system volume and verifying the integrity of other startup components. BitLocker is also called full volume encryption.
Remote Assistance enables a support person to offer assistance or reply to requests for assistance from desktop users. With Remote Assistance, the helper can connect to the computer desktop to watch or perform tasks to troubleshoot and correct desktop problems.
The Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) is used for transferring mail between e-mail systems and some e-mail clients. Add the SMTP Server feature to add e-mail support to other server roles such as IIS.
Telnet is a TCP/IP protocol that establishes a command-line session with a remote server. With Telnet, you can connect to a server and manage the server using a command prompt. In Windows Server 2008, Telnet is divided into two features:Add the Telnet Server to allow a computer to accept incoming Telnet connections.Add the Telnet Client to add Telnet support so the computer can initiate Telnet connections with a server.
Failover Clustering is a feature that increases the availability and fault tolerance of network servers. With clustering, servers are grouped together, with all servers sharing storage resources. Failover Clustering provides high availability by migrating services on failed servers to available servers in the cluster.
Network Load Balancing (NLB)
Network Load Balancing (NLB) is a feature that disperses a workload between two or more computers or resources to achieve optimal resource utilization, throughput, or response time. Load balancing improves performance by distributing the workload between multiple servers, and provides fault tolerance such that if one server is unavailable, additional servers are available to fulfill the request.
Windows Server Backup
Windows Server Backup provides backup and recovery for Windows Server 2008. It replaces the NTbackup.exe backup utility in previous Windows versions. Windows Server Backup allows you to manage backup and recovery from either the command line or the Windows Server Backup console snap-in.
PowerShell is a powerful scripting tool that you can use to perform nearly all administration tasks.
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