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what are attitudes?
Evaluation toward people, objects, or ideas
how are attitudes measured?
Self report (likert scales; using bogas pipeline) or covert (indirect) measures (e.g. nonverbal behavior, EMG, EEG, fMRI)
mere exposure effect
People form positive attitude toward things and people (including self) they encounter frequently; one exception to this rule
People form positive attitude toward things that are repeatedly paired with positive things (e.g. pleasant words, emotions), and negative attitude for things that are paired with negative things
People form positive attitude toward things that are paired with rewards
People form positive attitude toward things for which they have observed others liking and being rewarded it.
Does Attitude predict behavior?
- Yes, when (a) high similarity between attitude measures and behavior (i.e. if researchers are examining a
- general attitude, then they should measure general behavior and if examining about specific
- attitude, then they should measure specific behavior)
- (b) if a person holds strong attitudes
- (c) if a person’s attitude is highly accessible (e.g. perhaps through priming by researchers)
cognitive dissonance theory
- When people behave inconsistently with their attitudes, they
- feel dissonance. In order to reduce this dissonance, they change their attitudes.
When people behave inconsistently with their attitudes and cannot find a sufficient external justification for their attitude discrepant behavior (i.e. they received insufficient justification for behaving inconsistently with their attitudes, such as $1 or threat of a mild punishment), they change their attitudes
When people suffer for something, they like it more even if it’s boring because not liking it would cause dissonance (e.g. why did I go through all of this for this boring group?).
justify difficult decisions
People feel dissonance when they have to make a decision between two attractive choices. After making a decision, people’s attitude change (i.e. their positive attitude toward the chosen alternative goes up whereas their positive attitude toward the unchosen alternative goes down). This makes them feel better about their decision, especially if the decision is permanent.
what's an alternative to cognitive dissonance theory?
Self perception theory—role of dissonance
Changing attitudes: Persuasion
- 1) Yale Attitude Change Approach: Who, What, To Whom 2) Elaboration likelihood model- two routes to persuasion--central or peripheral route. How are they different and when are they used?
- 3) Role of fear in persuasion
what are consequences of stereotyping?
- 1) Backlash effect: Women who violate gender stereotypes are rated negatively
- 2) Stereotype threat: Steele & Aronson’s (1995) study of African-American and verbal test; Shih Pittinskyh & Ambady’s (1999) study of Asian women and math abilities Causes of stereotype threat, overcoming stereotype threat
how do sterotypes persist?
- Confirmation bias: seek and remember information that is consistent with one’s stereotype; subtyping
- 2) Self-fulfilling prophecy: A person’s stereotypes form expectations about the target, which influences their behavior toward the target. Their behavior in turn makes the target behave in ways that confirm the person’s stereotype. (e.g. Word, Zanna, & Cooper, 1974)
- 3) Illusory correlations
- Self-confirming nature of stereotypes• Stereotypes influence how we process social information• Information relevant to stereotypes is processed more quickly and remembered better• Stereotypes lead people to pay attention to information consistent with stereotype
what are the functions of sterotypes?
- Stereotypes as Heuristics
- • Stereotyping is “the law of least effort”
- • Using stereotypes saves effort and energy
- • People use stereotypes when ability to judge is diminished ex) morning vs night people (Bodenhausen,1990)
- • Using stereotypes enables people to process more information (Macrae, Milne, & Bodenhausen,1990)
self fufilling prophecy
- The process by which one’s expectations about a person lead that person to behave in ways that confirm expectations
- Perceivers’ expectations
- Perceiver’s behavior toward the target target’s behavior toward the perceiver• Rosenthal & Jacobson (1968) study of teachers and children; Snyder’s study of attractive
Causes of stereotype threat
- 1. Physiological arousal
- 2. Suppressing thoughts of stereotypes
- 3. Threatens working memory4. Negative thoughts (worry, dejection)
what are the causes of predjudice?
- People engage in social categorizationus (ingroup) vs them (outgroup)
- People engage in social categorizationus (ingroup) vs them (outgroup)ex) blue eyed vs brown eyed
- • Consequences of social categorization:
- (1) Ingroup favoritism: favor ingroup over outgroup• Occurs even in minimal groups (Tajfel): • ex) under vs overestimators
what is predjudice?
Prejudice: Negative feelings toward persons based on their memberships in certain groups
Different types of prejudice
Explict, Implicit (using the IAT to measure implicit prejudice), Modern racism (e.g. Dovidio & Gaertner, 1977)
Reducing stereotypes, prejudice, and discrimination
- 1) Contact hypothesis: conditions when contact reduces prejudice
- 2) Superordinate goals: Sherif’s (1954) robber cave study; the Jigsaw classroom
- 3) Common group identity model
- 4) Perspective taking
Causes of prejudice
People’s tendency to engage in social categorization (ingroup vs outgroup) which leads to 1) Ingroup favoritism: Social identity theory 2) Perceptions of outgroup homogeneity and ingroup differentiation 3) Infrahumanization: Leyons’s study of primary vs secondary emotions
different types of prejudice
1. Explicit prejudice: conscious, deliberative2. Implicit prejudice: unconscious, spontaneous3. Modern racism: expressing prejudice when it’s safe or easy to rationalize
why do we like?
- • Similarity
- • Reciprocal liking
- • Proximity
- • Reward
Similarity: Birds of feather flock together or Opposites attract?
- 1) Demographic info, Attitudes, Personality (Newcomb’s study of roommates, married couples)
- 2) Physical attractiveness: Blind date at freshman dance study, matching hypothesis
- 3) Behavior: Mimicry and chameleon effect, consequences of mimicry, using mimicry to our advantage 4) Why do we like others who are similar to us?: because of the need to be liked, validated, and disagreement is unpleasant
- 5) When do we NOT like those who are similar to us?: self-evaluation maintenance theory, non-reciprocal liking
Why do we like others who are similar to us?
- 1) Need to be liked
- 2) Need to be validated
- 3) Disagreement leads to repulsion
Reciprocity: Is playing hard to get effective?
- We like people who likes us except those with low self-esteem (they like those who verify their negative view of themselves)
- Gain-loss effect: We especially like those who like us after initially disliking us (e.g. Aronson & Linder, 1965). Why does this occur?
- Reasons for reciprocal liking: we do not want to be rejected, self-fulfilling prophecy (study by Curtin and Miller)
Proximity: Absence makes the heart grow fonder or out of sight, out of mind?
- Festinger’s MIT housing complex study: physical and functional distance
- Reasons for proximity effect: convenience/availability, anticipation of interaction, familiarity (mere exposure effect, e.g. Moreland & Beach, 1992)
- When do we NOT like those who are near us?: repeated exposure to unpleasant person, violation of need of privacy
We like those who reward us—this theory can explain why theories of similarity, reciprocity, proximity lead to greater attraction
- 1) Positive outcomes of internet relationships (when forming relationships and maintaining relationships)
- 2) Reasons for positive outcomes: 1) better able to express true selves, 2) project qualities of ideal friends to internet partners (positive illusions), 3) provides social support to those with similar problems
- 3) Warnings about forming internet relationships
- Selective reciprocity
- Partner preferences: traditional research on evolutionary theory (Buss’s study on partner preferences vs cultural explanations of partner preferences), Eastwick & Finkel’s study that tests evolutionary explanation of partner preferences
Relationships: What makes us happy in our relationships?
- 1. Social exchange theory 1) Factors influencing satisfaction: rewards, costs, comparison level 2) Factors influencing commitment: satisfaction, comparison level for alternatives, investment
- 2. Equity theory 1) Factors influencing relationship satisfaction and how to restore equity
- 3. Exchange and communal relationships 1) Differences between exchange and communal relationships 2) Factors influencing satisfaction in communal relationships
- 4. Individual factors that influence relationship satisfaction: attachment styles, rejection sensitivity, self-esteem
what are the benefits of being in a relationship?
- 1. Healthier, live longer, happier
- 2. Cohen’s study on social support and likelihood of catching cold
- 3. Invisible support
- 4. Williams’s study on social exclusion and pain
why do people help?
- 1. For survival• Evolutionary theory – Kin selection, Reciprocity
- 2. For rewards• Social exchange theory– Rewards: Reciprocity, Social reward, Negative state relief
- 3. For empathy• Empathy-altruism theory– We help for altruistic reasons when feel empathy
behaviors that help genetic relative are favored by natural selection
when people feel empathy toward the victim, they help for altruistic reasons
Negative state relief theory:
people help because it relieves personal distress
when do people help?
- 1. Notice situation 1) Good samaritan study: results of the study, which situational factors influenced this step?
- 2. Interpret event as emergency 1) Smoke room study: results of the study and reasons for the results (pluralistic ignorance)
- 3. Assume responsibility 1) Ear phone study: results of the study and reasons for the results (bystander effect, diffusion of responsibility) 2) Which situational factors influenced Steps 2 and 3?
- 4. Know appropriate forms of assistance
- 5. Implement decision to help 1) Influenced by costs, danger, audience inhibition
Other situational factors that influence helping (in addition to time pressure and number of bystanders)
- 1. Location: Urban overload hypothesis
- 2. Population density and cultural norms of Simpatia: Levine’s field study on helping
- 3. Individualism/collectivism: Kemmelmeier’s study on volunteering and IC
Individual differences: (for helping others)
- 1. Altruistic personality
- 2. Gender differences in types of helping
- 3. Mood: 1) Happiness and helping; why are happy people likely to help? 2) Sadness, Guilt: why are sad or guilty people likely to help?
- 4. Attribution of responsibility
How to increase helping:
Reduce diffusion of responsibility and volunteering should be presented as a choice, not a requirement