Dendro Week 10

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  1. Herb
    a seed-producing annual, biennial, or perennial that does not develop persistent woody tissue, but dies down at the end of a growing season; a plant or plant part valued for its medicinal, savory or aromatic qualities
  2. Herbaceous
    having little or no woody tissue and usually persisting only one growing season 
  3. Flabellate
    fan shaped leaf form
  4. Spur Shoots
    a short compact branch with no internode elongation; short shoot;
  5. Globose
  6. Acicular
  7. Fascicle Sheath
    A tubular structure, often made of leaves or bracts, which surround a stem or other plant organ
  8. Include many of world’s most interesting and useful trees
    Particularly important in temperate and cold-temperate forests of both N. and S. Hemispheres
    Historically, approx. 350 million years old, mid-Paleozoic era, Davonian period
    Among first seed plants
    Reached peak of diversity, dominance during Mesozoic era, between 250 and 100 million years ago; steady decline since
    At present, only 5 orders, 16 families, 86 genera and ca. 840 species worldwide
    Are seed plants with ‘naked seeds’; i.e., naked ovules at pollination 
    Have prezygotic megagametophyte tissue as storage tissue in seed vs. angiosperms with postzygotic endosperm formed by double fertilization
    Conifers most important of the gymnosperms commercially and ecologically; many others used extensively for ornamentals 

    This is a description of which type of plants?
    Pinophyta (gymnosperms)
  9. Name the seven differences between monocots and dicots
    • Embryo with single cotyledon
    • Pollen with single furrow or pore
    • Flower parts in multiples of three
    • Major leaf veins parallel
    • Stem vacular bundles scattered
    • Roots are adventitious
    • Secondary growth absent

    • DICOTS
    • Embryo with two cotyledons
    • Pollen with three furrows or pores
    • Flower parts in multiples of four or five
    • Major leaf veins reticulated
    • Stem vascular bundles in a ring
    • Roots develop from radicle
    • Secondary growth often present
  10. What are the four groups of Gymnosperms?
    • Cycadales
    • Ginkgoales
    • Taxales
    • Pinales
  11. What gymnosperm group is this?
    4 families, 11 genera, ca. 145 species of tropical and subtropical plants resembling palms or tree ferns
    Trunk either generally un-branched and 20-60’, or short, tuberous, mostly subterranean stem (native Zamia)
    Produce terminal rosette of large, pinnately divided leaves, seeds borne on modified leaves either clustered around the stem or compact cone
    Plants dioecious, some with large pollen cones, pollination by beetles attracted to strong odor
  12. Family?
    Cycas most frequently used ornamental (leaflets have midrib, no lateral veins)
  13. Family?
    all cycads in Western Hemisphere (leaflets have many parallel or forked veins)
  14. Family?
    Leaves: deciduous, alternate, flabellate (fan-shaped), small dichotomous veins; borne on long shoots at tips of branches, short spur branches on older growth; pale yellow in fall, dropping quickly after turning, and/or after frost
    Twigs: scaly brown, globose buds, terminal present; raised leaf scars, half-round with 2 bundle scars; estipulate; homogeneous pith
    Flowers: dioecious, catkin-like pollen sacs, ovules in pairs at end of long stalk, both on spur branches; anemophilous
    Fruit: 1” dia. seed with an outer, fleshy seed coat that is yellow-orange and foul-smelling when ripe; inner seed coat hard and pale
    Nut is delicacy in Orient; herbal extract of leaves, ‘nutriceuticals’, for blood flow
  15. Family?
    Leaves: persistent, mostly in spirals (rarely opposite), decurrent, linear, with or without resin canals
    Seeds: entirely or partly surrounded by a fleshy aril; plants dioecious or monoecious; anemophilous
  16. Family Genus Species
    ground-hemlock or Canadian yew; low, sprawling shrub, moist, shady sites, NE states and Canada
    • canadensis
    • Taxus 
    • Taxaceae
  17. FGS
    FL yew, shrub to small tree, river banks and ravines
    • Floridana
    • Taxus 
    • Taxaceae
  18. Pacific yew, small to medium-sized tree of Pacific coast; only native species with any commercial importance

    Leaves: flexible, ½ - to slightly over 1” long, apex soft-pointed linear and decurrent, appearing distichous, dark yellow-green to blue-green 
    Flowers: dioecious, pollen cones and ovules axillary
    Seed: ovoid-oblong ¼” long, partially surrounded by a sticky, hollow, scarlet aril; aril edible, black seeds within, however, poisonous
    Bark: reddish purple, thin, scaly or flaky
    Greatest value, interest: taxol, a compound from the bark for treating certain cancers
    • Brevifolia
    • Taxus
    • Taxaceae
  19. Family?

    Largest and most important timber-producing family of gymnosperms

    Leaves: deciduous or persistent; spirally arranged, in certain genera recurring in false whorls on spur shoots developed on older growth; solitary or in fascicles (Pinus); acicular (needle-like) or linear
    Cones (juvenile ovulate): bract and scale distinct, flat; ovules inverted, 2 at base of each scale; most species monoecious
    Mature seed cones: woody, stalked or sessile, pendent or upright, maturing in 1, 2, or rarely 3 seasons; in some genera, disintegrating at maturity; seeds terminally winged or wingless
  20. Family and Genus
    Products: timber, pulp & paper, naval stores – turpentine, pitch, pinewood oils, wood tars, rosin – leaf oils for medicines, seeds for food, needles and bark for mulch. Many insect & disease pests; fire can be problematic
    Leaves: (secondary) needles triangular, semicircular, or rarely circular in transverse section, borne in fascicles of 2 to 5, rarely as many as 8 or solitary, usually with several lines of stomata on each surface; apex acute; margin often sharply serrulate; basal sheath deciduous or persistent, composed of 6-12 bud scales; 1 or 2 vascular bundles, 2 to many resin canals, persistent for 2 to many years, pungent aroma when bruised
    Juvenile cones: unisexual; pollen cones axillary, red, orange, or yellow, in clusters, few to many at the base of the season’s growth; ovulate cones subterminal or lateral, erect, composed of several to many spirally arranged bracts, each subtending an ovuliferous scale; all species monoecious
    Mature seed cone: woody, cone scales armed or unarmed; seeds obovoid, with a terminal wing or wingless, 3-18 cotyledons, dispersed by wind, birds, mammals
    Buds: scaly, scales appressed, or free at ends and fringed; extremely variable in size, shape, and color, resinous or non-resinous
    Habit: terminal growth and whorl of side branches each year particularly typical for pines
    • Pinaceae
    • Pinus
  21. Family Genus Subgenus
    Needles: in fascicles of 1-5, 1 vascular bundle in cross section; generally ‘softer’
    Fascicle sheath: early deciduous
    Cone scales: usually thin at apex; mostly unarmed, except for foxtail pines
    Wood: soft; transition from early to late wood gradual
    • Strobus (soft pines)
    • Pinus
    • Pinaceae
  22. Family Genus Subgenus
    Needles: in fascicles of 2-3, rarely 5-8; 2 vascular bundles in cross section; generally more rigid
    Fascicle sheath: persistent and falling with fascicle, rarely deciduous
    Cone scales: usually thick at the apex, mostly armed with prickle
    Wood: hard or rarely soft; transition from early to late wood abrupt 
    • Pinus (hard pine)
    • Pinus
    • Pinaceae
  23. FGS
    Needles: 2.5”- 5” long, 5/fascicle, dark bluish green, slender and flexible; persistent until the end of the second season or following spring
    Cones: 3-8” long, narrowly oblong-conic, often slightly curved, stalked w/thin scales, falling from tree during winter, smooth when closed, unarmed scales
    Twigs: orange-brown, glabrous or sparingly puberulent; buds covered with thin reddish or orange-brown scales
    Bark: thin, smooth, dark green on young trees, soon furrowed; 1-2” thick, deeply, closely fissured into roughly rectangular blocks on old trees
    Range: primarily SE Canada, NE U.S., southern Appalachians
    • Pinaceae Pinus Strobus
    • Eastern White Pine
  24. FGS
    Needles: 2-4” long, 5/fascicle, blue-green, glaucous, slender, flexible, persisting 3-4 years
    Cones: 4-10” long, narrowly cylindrical, often curved, stalked, apophysis yellowish brown to reddish brown, inner surface of scale deep red, scale unarmed
    Twigs: moderately slender, often orange-brown pubescence during first season, dark reddish- to purplish-brown and glabrous; buds ½” long, cylindrical, blunt, covered with several closely appressed, imbricated scales
    Bark: smooth, gray-green to light gray on young trees; thin even on old trunks where breaks up into nearly square or rectangular dark ray or purplish gray blocks separated by deep fissures
    Range: BC, NW states and CA; except for coast of WA, typically a mountain species
    Habit: height 150-180’, dbh 2.5-3.5’ at maturity
    Important timber species
    • Pinaceae Pinus monticola
    • Western White Pine
  25. FGS
    Leaves: 2.75-4” long, spirally twisted, 5/fascicle, blue-green to gray-green, often silvery, persisting 2-4 years
    Cones: 11-20” long, 4-5” dia. when open; cylindrical, stalked; yellow brown outer surface; unarmed scale
    Twigs: stout, first glandular pubescence, later orange-brown to purplish brown and glabrous; buds1/3”-long, ovoid, sharp-pointed, several closely appressed, chestnut-brown, imbricated scales
    Bark: dark green, thin, smooth when young; grayish to purplish brown on old trunks, with thick, regular scaly ridges separated by deep fissures
    Range: moist, cool mountain soils primarily OR, CA
    Habit: long-lived (500-760 years); tallest and largest of pines; 170-180’, 30-42”dia; can reach over 250’, 11’dia.
    Named for sweet resinous substance called pinita that exudes from wounds and was eaten by early Native Americans
    Highly valued source of lumber
    • Pinaceae Pinus lambertiana
    • Sugar Pine
  26. FGS
    Needles: 2-3.5”, 5/fascicle, clustered near branch ends, dark green, stout, rigid, not toothed, persisting 5-6 years
    Cones: 3-6”, ovoid, scales thickened, and slightly reflexed at the apex; seeds often wingless
    Bark: smooth, silvery white to light gray or greenish gray when young; old trunks dark brown to nearly black, separated by deep fissures into rectangular, nearly square, superficially scaly plates or blocks
    Range: SE BC, SW Alberta to N. AZ and NM, from CA and OR to ND and Nebraska; 3,300-12,000’ elevation
    Habit: 30-50’, 15-36” dia; intolerant, slow-growing, long-lived (to 1670 years); can develop extensive crown with large, plume-like branches
    More importance for watershed protection and wildlife than commercial products; but used for construction lumber, ties, poles, ornamental
    • Pinaceae Pinus Flexilis
    • Limber Pine
  27. FGS
    Needles: 2.5-3.5”, 5/fascicle, slender, serrulate at least near tip, bright green, persisting 3-5 years
    Cones: 6-9”, cylindrical, yellow brown, short-stalked; scales slightly thickened and long, the thin apex curving back; seeds large, very short-winged, edible
    Bark: gray and smooth, becoming dark gray or brown and deeply furrowed into narrow, irregular ridges
    Range: West Texas to Central NM, east central AZ, and northern Mexico; elevation 6270-9900’; dry, rocky slopes
    Habit: straight, conical tree 50-80’, 3’ dia.
    Not sufficiently abundant for commercial value, used locally for fuel and posts; some popularity as Christmas tree species and ornamental
    • Pinaceae Pinus strobiformis
    • Southwestern White Pine
  28. Needles: 1-2.75”, 5/fascicle, dark green, stout, rigid, not toothed, clustered towards branch ends, persisting 5-8 years
    Cones: 1.5-3.25”, ovoid, purplish brown, thickened apophyses and terminally armed umbos; serotinous
    Bark: brownish white to creamy white on immature trees, smooth or superficially scaly at base on older trunks, rarely more than ½” thick
    Range: western BC, WA, OR, CA, to Alberta, ID, northern MT and northwestern WY; high elevations, dry, rocky slopes and ridges in subalpine zone to timberline
    Habit: alpine tree, only N. American representative of the “stone pines”, rarely larger than 30-50’, 12-24” dia.; tough, intolerant, long-lived
    Seeds eaten by Native Americans; important food source for black and grizzly bears
    Limited commercial value; watershed protection, aesthetics
    • Pinaceae Pinus Albicaulis
    • Whitebark Pine
  29. Group of Pines: Recognized by having 1 to 4(5) needles per fascicle, stiff and incurved, open seed cones, depressed-ovoid to nearly globose, and wingless seeds
    Pinyons or nut pines
  30. P. cembroides, Mexican pinyon; P. edulis, pinyon; P. monophylla, singleleaf pinyon; P. quadrifolia, Parry pinyon
    are all principle species of what goup?
    Pinyons or nut pines
  31. Group of Pines: Named for bushy nature of foliage on young branches
    Comprise small group of alpine pines, 3 of which are found in western U.S.
    Retain foliage for many years, curved needles, cone scales dorsally armed, seeds have terminal wings
    Habit: very small, rarely more than 30-40’,12-24” dia.; short, stocky, malformed trunk, often covered by dense, narrow, irregular crown
    Little or no commercial value; but valuable cover for high elevation watersheds
    Can live 1500-5100 years; significant contribution to knowledge of dendrochronology, carbon-14 dating, archeology
    Foxtail pines
  32. FGS
    foxtail pine: .75-1.5” long, bright blue-green needles, 5/fascicle, persisting 10-30 years; subalpine zone to timberline in northern and central CA; 20-50’ and 1-2’ dbh; can live 2100 years
    Pinaceae Pinus balfouriana
  33. FGS:
    intermountain bristlecone pine: needles and sites similar to above; 20-40’, 1-2’dbh; range – UT, NV eastern CA; oldest known trees, reaching 3000-5100 yrs
    Pinaceae Pinus longaeva
  34. FGS: Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine: needles similar, with median grove, persisting 10-17 yrs.; 20-40’, 1-2.5’dbh; similar sites; CO, northern NM and AZ; among oldest living trees, w/individuals reaching 1500-2400 yrs 
    Pinaceae Pinus aristata
  35. FGS:
    Needles: 5-8” long, 5/fascicle, upper surface green, lower blue-white, creating silvery blue cast; needles droop with age, often bending near base, creating a pendulous effect
    Cones: 6-12”, cylindrical, pendulous, brown with age
    Habit: 30-50’, graceful, upright, loosely pyramidal when young, branches spreading, pendulous with age; epicormic sprouting possible; ornamental value
    • Pinaceae Pinus Wallichiana
    • Himalayan Pine
Card Set:
Dendro Week 10
2012-12-16 04:30:09
Pinophyta Cycadales Ginkgoales Taxales Pinales Pinus

Pinophyta Cycadales Ginkgoales Taxales Pinales Pinus
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