Psychology Chapter 11

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Psychology Chapter 11
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2012-12-16 14:11:36
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  1. Personality
    your unique way of thinking, feeling, and acting
  2. Conscious Mind
    the relatively small part of your mind that are are aware of in each moment
  3. Preconscious Mind
    consists of those mental processes of which you are not currently conscious but could become so at any moment
  4. Unconscious Mind
    the thoughts, desires, feelings, and memoires that are not consciously available to you but nonetheless shape your behavior
  5. Id
    an inconscious part of your mind that contains the basic drives for reproductions, survival, and aggression
  6. Pleasure Principle
    • if it feels good, do it, and do it now rather than later
    • ex. a newborn cries when its needs are not immediately met, newborns experience distress and anxiety whenever their desires are not immediately satisfied
  7. Ego
    • the part of your mind that balances the demands of the id, the superego, and reality
    • the decision making part of your personality
    • partly conscious and unconscious
    • social acceptable way to accommodate id
  8. Superego
    • the part of your mind that conterbalances the more primitive demands of the id
    • your conscience
    • making you feel guilty when you do something wrong
  9. Ego Ideal
    picture of perfection
  10. Defense Mechanisms
    the ego's way of keeping threatening and unacceptable material out of the consciousness and thereby reducing anxiety
  11. Repression
    pushing anxious thoughts out of the consciousness, keeping them unconscious
  12. Rationalization
    • offering what appear to be logical explanations for attitudes, beliefs, or behavior in place of the real unconscious reasons
    • ex. not sudying for a test because it is not important
  13. Reaction Formation
    • preventing unacceptable feelings or ideas from being, directly expressed by expressing opposing fellings or ideas
    • ex. a friend treats you poorly, so you act especially polite and friendly toward them instead of anger
  14. Displacement
    redirecting aggressive or other unacceptable urges away from the intended targets towards those more acceptable
  15. Projection
    • perceiving your own aggressive and other unacceptable urges not in yourself but in others
    • ex. falsely accusing others of being unsecure while being insecure yourself
  16. Regression
    when you experience a great deal of anxiety reverting to childlike or childish behavior
  17. Carl Jung (1875-1961)
    analytical psychology
  18. Need For Individuation
    motivated by a desire for psychological growth and wholeness
  19. Collective Unconscious
    • in Jung's personality theory, is the part of the unconscious mind containing inherited memories shared by all human beings
    • these memories are accessed when your conscious ind is distracted, fantasies, are , or inactive as in dreams
    • we are born with tendencies to direct our attention either into our internal thoughts and feelings or into the outside world of people and activites
  20. Introverts
    focus on the inner world and are hesitant and cautious
  21. Extroverts
    are focused on the external world are confident and socially outgoing
  22. Psychoanalytic Approach Infleneces
    • a few of its general ideas concerning personality hae recieved widespread support
    • (1) unconscious processes shape human behavior
    • (2) childhood experiences shape adult personality
    • (3) learning to control and reidrect impulesse is critical for healthy development
  23. Rogers
    unconditional positive regard, ideal self, acutal self
  24. Unconditional Positive Regard
    unquestioning love and acceptance
  25. Conditional Positive Regard
    opposite of unconditional
  26. Ideal Self
    • the person you want to become
    • you adjust your life to meet other people's expectations and that leads to actual self
  27. Acutal Self 
    • this is the person you know yourself to be
    • with unconditional positive regard you work on developing the ideal slef
  28. Masolow
    • self actualization
    • peak experiences
  29. Self-Actualization
    • the process of fulfilling you potential
    • secure in the sense of who they are
    • strong enough to challenge other people's opinions
  30. Peak Experiences
    • a fleeting but intense moment when you feel happy, absorbed, and extremely capable
    • self-actualizing people have more peak experiences than non-self-actualizing people
  31. Trait Perspective
    a descriptive approach to personality that intentifies stable behavior petterns that a person displays over time and across situations
  32. Trait
    a relatively stable tendency to behave in a particular way across a veriety of situations
  33. Five-Factory Model
    • a treait theory asserting that personality consists of five basic traits
    • OCEAN: openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, neuroticism
  34. Social-Cognitive Perspective
    a personality  theory that examines how people analyze and use informatiopn about themselves and about others through social interaction
  35. Reciprocal Determinism
    • the social-cognitive belief that your personality emerges from an ongoing mutual interaction among your cognitions and actions, and your environment
    • meaning your personality can change
  36. Self-Efficacy
    your belief about you ability to perform behaviors that should bring about a desired outcome
  37. Locus Of Control
    the degree to which ou expect that what happens to you in life depends on your own actions and personal qualities versus the actions of uncontrollable environmental forces
  38. Internal Locus of Control
    believe you control what happens to you
  39. External Locus of Control
    believe things happen to you and you just react to them
  40. Social-Cognitive Theories
    • can be applied to help understnad and solve such problems as drug abuse, unemployments, academic underachievement, and teen preganancy
    • however, by emphasizing the cognitive side of human nature, the social-cognitive perspective best at explaining rational behavior that is "thought through"
    • it is less able to explain behavior that is spontaneous, irrations, and perhaps sparked by unconscious motives
  41. Psychoanalytic
    • explanation of behavior: personality is set early in childhood and is driven by unconscious and anxiety-ridden sexual impulses that we poorly understand
    • evaluation: a speculative, hard-to- test theory that has had an enormous cultual influence and a significan impact on psychology
  42. Humanistic
    • explanation of behavior: personality is based on conscious feelings about yourself and is focused on you capacity for growth and change
    • evaluation: a perspective that revitalized attention to the self but often did not use rigorous scientific methods
  43. Trait
    • explanation of behavior: personality consists of a limited number of stable characteristics that people display over times and across situations
    • evaluation: a descriptive approach that sometimes underestimates the impact that situational factors have on behavior
  44. Social-Cognitive
    • explanation of behavior: personality emerges from an ongoing mutual interaction among people's cognitions, their behavior, and environment
    • evalutation: a social interaction approach that tends to underestimate the impact that emotions and unconscious motives have on behavior
  45. Introverts and Extraverts
    • research shows that introversts tend to avoid too much social interaction and achnage due to their nervous system. 
    • extraverts are the opposite
  46. Shyness
    research shows that ovely shy people have greater brain activity in areas associated with anxious emotions than others when presented with pictures of unfamiliar faces
  47. Projective Personality Test
    a psychological test that askes you to respond to ambigious stimuli or situations in ways that reveal you inconscious motives and desires
  48. Rorschach Inkblot Test
    prjective personality test in which you are show 10 symmetrical inkbllots and asked whay each might be depicting
  49. Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
    a test in which you "project" you inner feelins and motives through the stories you make up about pictures
  50. Objective Tests
    a psychological test that asks direct, clearly understood questions about your conscious throughts, feelings, and behavior
  51. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
    • an objective personality test consisting of true-false questions that measure various personality dimmensions and clinical conditions such as depression
    • validity scales, and clinical scales

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