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For historical reasons, compounds containing carbon are said to be organic, and the branch of chemistry that specializes in the study of carbon compounds is called organic chemistry
6 major elements of life
C,H,O,N,S and P
the view that physical and chemical laws govern all natural phenomena
organic molecules consisting of only carbon and hydrogen. Atoms of hydrogen are attached to the carbon skeleton wherever electrons are available for covalent bonding.
compounds that have the same numbers of atoms of the same element but different structures and hence different properties.
differ in the covalent arrangements of their atoms
cri-trans isomers (formerly called geometric isomers)
carbons have covalent bonds to the same atoms, but these atoms differ in their spatial arrangement due to the inflexibility of the double bonds.
are isomers that are mirror images of each other and that differ in shape due to the presence of a asymmetric carbon, one that is attached to four different atoms or grups of atoms
the chemical groups affect molecular function by being directly involved in chemical reaction. Each functional group participates in chemical reachitions in a characteristic way from one organic molecule to another
what are the seven chemical groups most important in biological processes?
hydroxyl, carbonyl, carboxyl, amino, sulfhydryl phosphate, and methyl
- STRUCTURE: in a Hydroxyl group a hydrogen atom is bonded to an oxegyn atom, which is turn is bonded to the cabon skeleton of the organic molecule.
- NAME OF COMPOUND: Alcohols
- FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES: is polar as a result of teh electrons spending more time near the electronegative oxygen atom. Can form hydrogen bonds with water molecules, helping dissolve organic compounds such as sugars.
- STRUCTURE: The carbonyl groupconsists of a carbon atom joined to an oxygen atom by a double bond.
- NAME OF COMPOUND: Ketones: if the carbonyl group is within a carbon skeleton & Aldehydes if the carbonyl group is at the end of the carbon skeleton
- FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES: a ketone and an aldehyde may be structural isomers with different properties, as is the case for acetone and propanal. Ketone and aldehyde groups are also found in sugers, giving rise to two major groups of sugars: ketoses and aldoses
- STRUCTURE: When an oxegen atom is double bonded to a carbon atom that is also bonded to an hydroxyl group, the entire assembly of atoms is called a carboxyl group
- NAME OF COMPOUND: Carboxylix acids, or organic acids
- FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES: acts as an acid; can donate an H+ because the covalent bond between oxygen and hydrogen is so polar. Found in cells in the ionized form with a charge of 1- and called a carboxylate ion.
- STRUCTURE: The amino group consists of a nitrogen atom bonded to two hydrogen atoms and to the carbon skeleton
- NAME OF COMPOUND: AMINES
- FUNTIONAL PROPERTIES: Acts as a base; can pick up an H+ from the surrounding solution. Found in cells in the ionized form with a charge of 1+.
- STRUCTURE: The sulfhydryl group consists of a sulfur atom boned to an atom of hydrogen; it resembles a hydroxyl group in shape.
- NAME OF COMPOUND: Thiols
- FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES: Two sulfhydryl groups can react, forming a covalent bond. This cross-linking helps stabilize protiens structure. Cross-linking of cysteines in hair proteins maintain the curliness or straightness of hair.
- STRUCTURE: In the phosphate group a phosphorus atom is bonded to four oxygen atoms, on oxygen is boned to the carbon skeleton; two oxygens carry - charge
- NAME OF COMPOUND: organic phosphates
- FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES: Contributes negative charge to molecule of which it is a part. Molecules containing phosphate groups have the potential to react with water, releasing energy.
- STRUCTURE: a methyl group consists of a carbon bonded to three hydrogen atoms. The carbon of a methyl group may be attached to a carbon or to a different atom
- NAME OF COMPOUND: Methylated compounds
- FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES: Addition of a methyl group to DNA, or to molecules bound to DNA, affects the expression of genes. Arrangement of methyl groups in male and female sex hormones affects their shaoe and function.