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  1. Informal Qualifications
    Male, Protestant (all have been except for John Kennedy), and White (all have been except Obama). 
  2. Accidental Presidents
    Become President because was the VP when the incumbent president died or resigned. Most accidental of all was Gerald Ford who was nominated as VP when Nixon's VP resigned; Ford then became President when Nixon himself resigned.
  3. Impeachment
    The political equivalent of an indictment in criminal law, prescribed by the Constitution. The House of Reps may impeach the president by a majority vote for "Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors."By a two-thirds vote, the Senate may convict and remove the president from office.
  4. 22nd Amendment
    Passed in 1951, the amendment that limits presidents to two terms in office. 
  5. 25th Amendment
    Passed in 1967. VP becomes president if President died, is impeached, or resigns. Gives list in order of people to succeed, all the way to the 18th successor. Determines that for VP succession, the Pres chooses and Congress approves. The VP can become acting president if the president makes a self-declaration that he is disabled or the VP and majority of the cabinet say he is. 
  6. National Security Council (NSC)
    One of the 3 major policymaking bodies housed in the Executive Office. An office created in 1947 to coordinate the president's foreign and military policy advisers. Its formal members are the president, VP, secretary of state, and secretary of defense, and it is managed by the president's national security assistant. Has a much broader informal membership.
  7. Council of Economic Advisers (CEA)
    One of the 3 major policymaking bodies housed in the Executive Office. A 3-member body appointed by the president to advise the president on economy policy. They prepare the annual Economic Report of the President, which includes data and analysis on the curretn state and future trends of hte economy, and help the president make policy on inflation, unemployment, and other economic matters.
  8. Office of Management and Budget (OMB)
    One of the 3 major policymaking bodies housed in the Executive Office. An office that grew out of the Bureau of the Budget, created in 1921, consisting of a handful of political appointees and hundreds of skilled professionals. The OMB performs both managerial and budgetary functions. Its major responsibility is to prepare the president's budget. Presidents use the OMB to review legislative proposals from the cabinet so that they can determine whether they want an agency to propose these initiatives to Congress. 
  9. Executive office
    Next to the White House sits the Eisenhower Executive Office Building. It houses a collection of offices and organizations loosely grouped into the Executive Office of the President. Congress has created some of these offices by legislation, and the president has organized the rest. Started in 1939 when Roosevelt established it. 
  10. "Pitcher of Warm Spit"
    VPs have rarely enjoyed the job. John Nance Garner of Texas, one of FDR's VPs, declared that the job was "not worth a pitcher of warm spit." Once in office, VPs usually found that their main job is waiting. Recent presidents have taken their VPs more seriously, involving them in policy discussions and important diplomacy. 
  11. White House Staff
    Consists of the key aides the president sees daily: the chief of staff, congressional liaison people, a press secretary, a national security assistant, and a few other administrative and oplitical assistants. Today, there are about 600 people at work on teh White House staff who provide the chief executive with a wide variety of services ranging from making advance travel preparations to answering letters. Pres's rely heavily on their staffs for info, policy options, and analysis.
  12. Wheel-n-spokes Model
    Organization of the White House. A system of White House management in which many aides have equal status and are balanced against one another in the process of decision making. A few presidents have used this - i.e. JFK.
  13. Hierarchical Model
    Organization of the White House. Most presidents choose this form of organization with a chief of staff at the top, whose job it is to see that everyone else is doing his/her job and that the president's time and interests are protected.
  14. Curse of the Zero Presidents
    AKA "Tecumseh's Curse."  Legend has it that, after the battle of Tippecanoe in 1811, the Shawnee chief Tecumseh cursed Gen. William Henry Harrison. Tecumseh said that if Harrison is elected, he will die in office. And thereafter, every president elected every 20 years will die. Subsequently, every sitting president elected in a year ending in zero has died in office. The lone exception was President Ronald Reagan who luckily survived, but still endured, a serious assassination attempt.
  15. Imperial Presidency
    Historian Arthur Schlesinger wrote it. He was an aide of JFK and argued that the presidency had become too powerful for the nation's own good. 
  16. Imperiled presidency
    Ford spoke out in 1980, claiming that Carter's weakness had created an "imperiled" presidency. In the 1980s, Reagan experienced short periods of great influence and longer periods of frstruation. 
  17. Chief Executive
    Often how we refer to the president. One of his most important roles is presiding over the administration of gov't. The Constitution exhorts the president to "take care that the laws be faithfully executed." One of the resources for controlling this bureaucracy is the presidential power to appoint top-level administrators. 
  18. Chief Legislator
    Not used anywhere in the Constitution. A phrase invented to emphasize the president's importance in the legislative process. Constitution requires that the president gives a State of the Union address to Congress and instructs the president to bring other matters to Congress' attention "from time to time". Constitution gives the president power to veto congressional legislation. President can also use a pocket veto. Presidents must accept or reject bills in their entirety. 
  19. Line-item veto
    Allows governors to veto particular portions of a bill. President does not have this ability - he must accept or reject bills in their entirety.
  20. Clinton v. City of New York
    1998. Supreme Court voided the law that Congress passed granting the president authority to propose rescinding funds in appropriations bills and tax provisions that apply to only a few people. Unconstitutional grant of power to the president.
  21. Public Approval Rates
    Widespread support gives the president leeway and weakens resistance to presidential policies. It provides a cover for members of Congress to cast votes to which their constituents might otherwise object. Lack of public support strengthens the resolve of the president's opponents and narrows the range in which presidential policies receive the benefit of the doubt. Low ratings in the polls may create incentives to attack the pres, further eroding an already weakened position. 
  22. Chief Diplomat
    Constitution allocates certain powers in the realm of national security exclusively to the pres. Only the pres extends diplomatic recognition to foreign governments. He can terminate relations with other nations. And he has the sole power to negotiate treaties with other nations (Senate approves them by a 2/3s vote, though). Presidents negotiate executive agreements with the heads of foreign governments - don't require Senate ratification - i.e. food delivery agreements. 
  23. commander in Chief
    President is commander in chief of the armed forces. When the Constitution was written, the U.S. did not have/expect to have a large standing or permanent army. Today the pres is commander in chief of about 1.4 million uniformed men and women. President commands a vast nuclear arsenal. He is always near "the football," a briefcase with teh codes needed to unleash nuclear war. 
  24. War Powers Act
    A law passed in 1973 in reaction to American fighting in Vietnam and Cambodia that requires presidents to consult with Congress whenever possible prior to using military force and to withdraw forces after 60 days unless Congress declares war or grants an extension. Passed over Nixon's veto. Presidents view the resolution as unconstitutional. Presidents have largely ignored the law and sent troops into hostilities without effectual consultation with Congress. 
  25. Legislative Veto
    The ability of Congress to override a presidential decision. Although the War Powers Resolution asserts this authority, there is reason to believe that, if challenged, the Supreme Court would find the legislative veto in violation of the doctrine of separation of powers. 
  26. "Two Presidencies"
    Commentators on the presidency often refer to the "two presidencies" - one for domestic policy and the other for national security policy. This means that the pres has more success in leading Congress on matters of national security than on matters of domestic policy. The typical member of Congress, however, supports the president on roll-call votes about national security only slightly more than half teh time.
  27. "Bully pulpit"
    Commentators on the presidency often refer to it as a "bully pulpit," implying that presidents can persuade or even mobilize the public to support their policies if they are skilled communicators. Pres's frequently do attempt to obtain public support for their policies with TV or radio appearances and speeches to large groups. But presidential speeches designed to lead public opinion have typically been rather unimpressive. And the public is not always receptive to the president's message, or they have predispositions about public policy that act as screens for presidential messages. And the public may misperceive or ignore even the most basic facts regarding presidential policy.
  28. Press Secretary
    The person who most often deals directly with the press. Serves as a channel of info from the White House to the press. Conduct daily press briefings, giving prepared announcements and aswering questions. Arrange private interviews with White House officials, photo opportunities, and travel arrangements for reporters when the pres leaves Washington. 
  29. Executive Agreements
    Presidents have the ability to negotiate executive agreements with the heads of foreign gov'ts. Don't require Senate ratification. Most are routine and deal with noncontroversial subjects such as food deliveries or customs enforcement, but some, such as the Vietnam peace agreement and the SALT I agreement limiting offensive nuclear weapons, implement important and controversial policies.
  30. Executive Orders
    Presidents can issue executive orders to agencies. They are one method pres's can use to control the bureaucracy. These orders carry teh force of law and are used to implement statutes, treaties, and provisions of the Constitution. 
  31. Midterm Elections
    the elections held between presidential elections. The president's party typically loses seats in these elections. 
  32. Expansion of Powers
    Today there is more to pres power than the Constitution alone suggests - many sources. The rold of the pres has changed as america has increased in prominence on the world stage; technology has also reshaped the presidency. Presidents themselves have developed new roles for the office. Many pres's have enlarged the power of the pres by expanding his responsibilities and political resources. 
  33. Constitutional Expressed Powers
    The Const says very little about pres power. The discussion of the presidency begins with these general words: "The executive power shall be vested in a president of the US." It lists a few powers of the pres. The framers check those powers they believed to be most dangerous while protecting the general spheres of authority from encroachment (i.e. veto power). Some are: serves as commander in chief, makes treaties, nominates ambassadors, conferring diplomatic recognition on other gov'ts, present info on state of the union to Cong, "take care that laws be faithfully executed," nominate federal judges, etc. 
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