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independant observation
 each observation is not neccisarily connected
 assupmtions are not supportive of claims
 one can only correlate findings

3 main types of studies done in ecology
 modeling
 observational field study

onbservations to be recorded at each site
 weather
 climate
 time/time of year
 subject
 recorder
 recent storm events

on of three question the data from the cyptozoa experiment
how does the location of the transect (relative to sunlight exposure) effect yhr amount of organisms discovered under each tile

why do birds funnel to hawk ridge
 migratory pattern bring the to the shore of the great lakes
 due to lack of thermals, they funnel south to the ridge and duluth

3 types of literture citations

riffles
shallow, but more turbulent water

pools
deeper andd more smooth flow

runs
intermediate flow and depth

metadata
 description of data
 how, where, when, etc...

standard deviation
Sqrt (sample varience)

sample coefficient of variation
(Standard deviation)/(samle mean)


confidence intervals do no overlap
refute null hypothesis

comparison for statistical significance
Ttest

nonparametric
entire sample distribution compared, but not with respect to specific parameters suchh as alpha or nu

negative correlation
A relationship between two variables in which one variable increases as the other decreases, and vice versa

if a negative correlation, r is close to what value
1

skewness
 lack of symetry in data (no bell curve, or offset curve)

meaure the spread of data besides range

