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What happens in the case of Acid Reflux? (Heartburn)
The Cardiac spchinter opens causing the acidic chyme to burn in the unprotected esophogous.
How can food still travel to the stomach in a zero gravity environment.
This is because of Peristalisis which is the contractions of the esophogous pushing food down towards/into the stomach.
What is the role of the small intestine? What gives it it's increase in surface area?
The Small intestine's main role is the absorption of nutrients. It gains surface area by little finger like projections called villi, and on each villi cell is microvilli increasing surface area even more.
Where in the small intestine does most chemical digestion take place?
Where does food exit the stomach?
The Pyloric sphincter.
What is the body's preferred energy source?
What is the function of the colon?
Absorbs all remaining water from feces
What is bile? Where is it stored?
It helps to break down lipids. It is a yellowy greenish substance produced in liver, stored in gull bladder
Molecules formed from smaller subunits
invasive procedure to see within the colon.
Aids in breakdown of food. Contains amylase
Last part of small intestine, leading to colon.
What is the difference between Gas exchange and ventilation? How is one dependant on the other?
Ventilation is the process of moving air throughout the body inhaling and exhaling. Gas exchange is the specific exchanging of o2 and Co2. For cellular respiration to occur, both need to be present so that the air may be transported and rich with o2
describe ventilation as well as important structures and their functions.
during inhalation, the diaphram contracts expanding the lungs and causing a decrease in pressure so that air may flow in. during an inhaliation, the external intercostals raise the ribcage. the internal intercostals lower the ribcage during exhalation.
what are the two main sites for gas exchange in the human body? What determines the direction of the diffusion?
In the lungs and the body cells gas exchange occurs due to a pressure gradient. naturally gases will diffuse from areas of high pressure to low pressure.
What happens to the body at high altitude? What benefits does an increase in blood bring?
At high altitude oxygen becomes less dense meaning it is spread out more causing a low concentration. At high altitude, the body will secrete EPO which rapidly produces RBC making more efficent use of the surrounding air.
What valves require the chordae tendinae?
The Atrioventricular valves
what are the 4 main functions of circ system?
Healing, Heating, delivery, fighting off infections.
What is the difference between an open and closed circ system?
In an open system blood dumps into cavities mixing with the tissue causing hemolypmh this is in direct contact with the body cells essentially bathing them in nutrients. This is mostly suited for organisms with slow metabolic rates.
In a closed circ system, blood is transferred through vessels and does not come in contact with body cells, this is suited for organisms with a high metabolic rate.
What is the difference between veins and arteries.
Arteries have thick walls, while veins have very thin walls. Arteries are ridgid and veins are flimsy. This difference is due to the high systolic pressure that the artieries under go vs the veins.
What is a myocardial infarction?
A piece of the heart tissue dies due to o2 deprivation. this is commonly known as a heart attack. this is due to a build up of plauque in the coronary arteries. An angioplast can be done to permanently dialate the arteries by placing a balloon like thing in the vessel and then leaving a stent in its place.
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