ANSC 100

Card Set Information

ANSC 100
2012-12-16 21:27:21
ELEVEN Delivery Animal Health Care Services Developing World

Delivery of Animal Health Care Services in the Developing World
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  1. What are the Organizational and Economic Constraints in developing countries?
    • prev trend of gov employed vets in many developing nations only vets available where employed by gov and they lacked clinical skills because were all employed for regulatin 
    • In function vets tend to be regulatory in function and lacked clinical skills  (ie vaccine)
    • dwindling funding with decolonization and associated economic upheavel
    • break down in vet services and increased disease problems organisational and economic struggles to maintain systems. no $ for vets and vets dont know how to run a bussness, in war suspend vet services
  2. What are the Infrastructural constraints
    • Transportation
    •  inadequate public infrastructure: roads, public transit etc the challenge is to get vet to animal or vice versa
    • poor availability and maintenance of vehicles
    • Communication
    • cellular phones begin to increase communication but patchy service and lack of high speed internet
    • slow reporting of disease outbreaks
    • people do not seek animal health cae beceause is in inaccessible
    • Electricity and Refrigeration
    • Important for several aspects of vet work including communication, refrigeration of samples and medications/ vaccines difficult to keep vaccine alive if die they are ineffective
    • newer varieties of modified live vaccines allow warm storage and do not depend on the "cold chain"
    • Product availability and Reliability
    • selection and availability of vet drugs formerly under gov control and under a tender/bid system with quoates delivered to regions issue is that one region might have all the drugs because drugs get distributed unequally
    • fake products available in markets reduce public confidence in vaccines and pharmaceuticals
  3. Disaster-related constraints
    • Wars and civil instability
    • disrupt vet infrastructure
    • loss of professionals due to emigration vet leaves country that is under turmoil
    • difficult to recruit vets to unstable areas
    • Natural Disasters
    • adversely effect of overwhelm vet resources
    • lack of feed diminished herd health/ immunity
    • forced concentration of animals around resource areas spreads diseases animals and people come together no vaccines etc... = chaos
  4. Animal Management constraints
    • Pastoralism large flocks, "herders" following grass
    • many semi-arid regions
    • demand for vet services is high but mobility of herders and herds inhibits followup and consistency of care challenge: where are they?
    • makes disease outbreaks harder to manage because they are always somewhere else it makes disease outbreaks harder to manage
    • Subsistence farmers small # of animals for a family
    • it is a high cost to bring in a vet for one animal (difficult to justify)
    • limited number of animals
    • cost of vet care prohibitive (cost/animal is high)
    • remote locations: inability to transport animals, no incentive for private vets to provide service
    • Commercial farmers farms like in CN
    • wealth/ influence allow disproportionate access to vet care they have more access to good vet care
    • attention may be paid to eliminating diseases more important to the politically connected
    • may provide incentive to allow private clinical practice to serve smaller farms also policies make it harder for little farmers to make a living because they cant uphold them
  5. Opportunities to improve animal health care delivery:
    • once farmers see value in what paying for they will pay
    • Useful when:
    • -government programs too costly to maintain
    • -budgetary problems resulted in shrinkage of vet services
    • new programs to encourage cost recovery (herders pay for vaccines, meds) are allowing farmers to access products and participate in improvement of herd health
    • depends on guaranteed quality and assured access to products- accountability
  6. Opportunities to improve animal health care delivery:
    • helps take away from gov and lets private vets deal with individuals
    • realization that farmers/ herders are willing to pay for clinical services if reliability available and effective
    • advantage to government of reducing costst and refocus efforts on public-good programs such as disease surveillance, meat inspection and other public health activities
    • Challenge
    • -diffucult to induce govs vets to leave posts to go to private practice -financial risks, lack of pension, lack of clinical skills
    • -hard to service subsistence farmers or migratory herders
    • -high transportation and other overhead costs
  7. Opportunities to improve animal health care delivery:
    Development of Community-Based Paraprofessional Services
    • training of local paraprofessional to provide basic care to local animals
    • trained to recognize and equipped to treat or prevent a selected group of diseases and conditions determined to commonly affect local livestock
    • based on rationale that: the majority of disease induced morbidity/mortality is caused by a fairly small and finite set of common and predictably occuring disease problems for local geography, climate and animal management systems
    • paraprofessionals trained to recognize and treat/ prevent these diseases on a fee-for-service basis
    • train them to recognise few most economical diseases and how treat and vaccinate everything
  8. Opportunities to improve animal health care delivery:
    Use of ethnoveterinary medicine
    • use of local people's knowledge pertaining to animal health and production
    • in cultures where animal husbandry is traditional, traditional technique for treatment of diseass such as for tick parasites, may be useful, effective and inexpensive
    • must be distinguished from practivcies of outright superstition or faulty observation
    • compare to countries where animals are newly introduced to the culture, this local animal husbandry knowledge does not exist (ie one cow per family)
    • men, women, and children may have very different observations (children do the herding, men do the slaughter, women do cleaning of entrails after the slaughter) so all groups must be interviewed regarding practices
  9. Opportunities to improve animal health care delivery:
    Linking Vet Education to Local Needs
    • widely varying standards of education in different countries
    • high standards and rigorous academic screening may not serve countries well if students who graduate are not inclined to return to local rural areas where animal care is needed, or if tribal/cultural barriers or lack of local understanding of disease issies inhibit effectiveness
    • number of vets to be trained must meet needs- would professional serve rural areas better?
    • train them to recognise few most economical diseases and how to treat and vaccinate everything
    • ensure curriculum meets local needs as well as providing solid grounding in basic principles
    • trend to privatization means some vets must be trained for clinical practice (including busness mgt) while other must meet public (regulatory) practice needs
    • local/regional needs must be addressed- fish health, wildlife, predominant local domestic species
  10. Opportunities to improve animal health care delivery:
    Use of ethnoveterinary medicine