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extending out, beyond the surrounding structures
short projection of a conifer twig bearing a sessile or petiolate leaf and remaining on a twig following leaf drop
curved downward or backward
bent or curved backward or downward
small, often appressed leaf; (part of the conifer cone that bears ovules)
pores found on the epidermis of leaves and stems that are used for gas exchange
What is the difference between stomata and lenticels?
Stomata --a stoma (plural stomata) is a tiny opening or pore, found mostly on the underside of a plant leaf, and used for gas exchange. It is encircled by two Guard cells that control its opening and closing .
- Lenticel-- A lenticel is a spongy area present in the cork surfaces of the stems, roots, and other parts of vascular plants. They are aptly called 'The breathing Pores '.
- These structures allow for the exchange of gases between the internal tissues and atmosphere to occur across the periderm, which would otherwise prevent this exchange of gases.
Leaves: persistent, small scales, decussate; facial leaves flattened, grooved, and often glandular, the lateral leaves rounded or keeled; branchlets flattened into sprays and held more or less horizontally or droopingMature cones: erect, ovoid-cylindrical, leathery to semi-woody, composed of several thin scale/bracts; cones solitary
Range: eastern Canada, NE U.S. and northern Lake States; OH, KY, WVA, VA; not NJ
40-50’, 2-3’ dia; narrowly pyramidal
Wildlife importance; lumber, poles, fencing, and shingles; ornamental – more than 100 cultivars; first N. American tree introduced in Europe (about 1566)
- Northern White Cedar
any of several Asian and North American conifers of the genera Thuja and Thujopsis.
10-26 species of trees and shrubs, western N. America, Mexico, Central America, Mediterranean basin, Himalayas, China
Some disagreement on number and rank of taxa
- Cupressus (cypress)
Range: west TX, southwestern NM, AZ and southern CA
Habit: 50-65’, 15-30” dia.; slow growing, tolerant
Local uses, but no major commercial value
Attractive ornamental eastward to Atlantic coast
- Cupressaceae Cupressus Arizonica
- Arizona Cypress
Leaves: 1/16-1/8”, keeled, circular glands on back, dark blue-green, turning brown second year, but persistent several yrs.
Cones: 1/4-3/8” dia., somewhat fleshy; bluish purple, glaucous at maturity, later turning brown; scale bracts short, pointed
Bark: thin, but thicker on old trunks; ashy gray to reddish brown, somewhat similar to northern white cedar
Range: SE coast of ME south to NC; also FL panhandle
Habit: 80-85’, 10-14” dbh; clear, cylindrical bole, narrow, conical crown; fresh water swamps, bogs
Wood resistant to decay; posts, logs for cabins, shingles, boats, siding
- Cupressaceae Cupressus Thyoides
- Atlantic White Cedar
Range: much of eastern and central U.S.
Habit: small- to medium-sized tree 40-50’, 12-24”dbh; crown is dense and pyramidal, columnar, or broadly bushy; slow-growing, intolerant tree; pioneer species; extremely broad ecological amplitude
Two varieties recognized by some, the typical redcedar and a southern redcedar
Various cultivars; among best of native ornamental evergreens
Reddish, resistant, aromatic wood used for furniture, paneling fence posts
- Cupressaceae Juniperus Virginiana
- Eastern redcedar
Only member of genus; discovered in China in 1941
Deciduous conifer; needles bright green above, oppositely arranged, turn rusty orange to reddish brown in fall; flowers monoecious; cones pendulous, 0.75-1.0” long and wide, on 0.5-1.0” stalks,’ dark brown
Widely-planted ornamental; fast-grower; can reach 125
Metasequoia glyptostroboides – dawn redwood
True or False
Most massive living tree: “General Sherman”, a giant sequoia in CA measuring 275’ tall with a girth of slightly over 102’
True or false
Oldest tree: a redwood, “Immortal God”, in CA believed to be 12,000 years old; argued by some to be ‘only’ 7,000 years old (still making it the oldest)
False Enternal God
True or False
Slowest growing: a white cedar in Great Lakes area of Canada had grown less than 4 inches tall during its155 years
- “…the determination of the age and growth pattern of trees by the comparative study of annual tree rings…”
- Initially developed to infer information about archeological remains and various cultures
How is dendrochonology calculated?
- Number of individual rings used to determine tree/stand age
- Pattern of annual rings of temperate climate species is informative
- Assist understanding of whether climatic ‘aberrations’ of today are indeed unusual
- Explored historical amount of sunshine for a region
- Examined historical hydrological changes in rivers
- Examined tree growth in relation to atmospheric deposition
- Examine climate change
- Examine forest disturbance history
- Enhanced the value of old trees, and interest in finding old growth sites in eastern U.S.