Final-Bio_100

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Anonymous
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189867
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Final-Bio_100
Updated:
2012-12-17 00:04:08
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bio 100
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final
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  1. How does your author define plants?
    A plant is a multicellular Eukaryote that produces its own food by photosynthesis and has an embryo that develops within the protected environment of the sporophytic parent.
  2. What are the aquatic ancestors of plants?
    The aquatic ancestors of plants were green algae.
  3. Name the green alga that is the closest living relative to land planets.
    Coleochaetes, a type of green algae, are the closest living relative of land plants.
  4. How long ago did the first land plants appear?
    The first land plants appeared about 475 million years ago.
  5. Why was it necessary for terrestrial plants to evolve before other animals could inhabit the land?
    Plants had to inhabit the land before animals in order to provide the animals something to eat.
  6. The earliest plants had no structure to transport water and nutrients. So, how did these plants transport?
    The earliest plants, the bryophytes, have no vascular tissue and must transport water and nutrients by the slow process of diffusion and osmosis.
  7. The ________ are the liverworts, hornworts and mosses.
    The bryophytes are the liverworts, hornworts and the mosses.
  8. In the bryophytes, how does the sperm get to the egg?
    In the bryophytes, the sperm gets to the egg by swimming.
  9. Mounts of burning peat moss are used to dry the barley that is used to produce ________ whiskey, which gives it its characteristic taste.
    Mounds of burning peat moss are used to dry the barley that is used to produce Scotch whickey, which gives scotch it's characteritic taste.
  10. What two things did the development of vascular tissue do for plants?
    The evolution of vascular tissue allowed early land plants to transport water and nutrients faster and more effectively, and these thick-walled cells also allowed them to more easily withstand the effects of gravity.
  11. During the carboniferous period, which extended from ______ million years ago to ______ million years ago, ______ were a major component of huge swamp forest that eventually formed the coal deposits we are mining now.
    During the carboniferous period, which extended from 360 million years ago to 300 million years ago, ferns were a major component of huge swamp forest that eventually formed the coal deposits we are mining now.
  12. Like non-vascular plants, horsetails and ferns reproduce with...
    Like non-vascular plants, horsetails and ferns reproduce with spores.
  13. Name two major groups of seed plants.
    The two major groups of seed plants are the gymnosperms (conifers or cone-bearing plants, and the angiosperms, or flowering plants.
  14. Name the three main parts of seed.
    The seed consists of a seed coat, a food supply or endosperm, and a baby plant.
  15. Where are the seeds of cone-bearing plants produced?
    The seeds of cone-bearing plants are produced in the big cones, called the seed cones.
  16. How long has wind pollination been around, and what plants exclusively wind pollinate?
    Wind pollination has been around 200 million years, and the gymnosperms exclusively are wind pollinated.
  17. How tall is the Coast Redwood of California?
    The Coast Redwood of California is 380 feet tall.
  18. How many years ago did the angiosperms appear?
    The angiosperms appeared 135 million years ago.
  19. How many angiosperm species are there? How many gymnosperm species are there?
    There are 250,000 species of angiosperms, while there are only 1,000 species of gymnosperms.
  20. What are the two strategies employed by plants to attract pollinators?
    To attract pollinators plants use (1) trickery and (2) bribery.
  21. What part of the seed of flowers plants, other than the egg, comes from fertilization. How is this referred to?
    Other than the egg, the endosperm is also fertilized, and this is referred to as double fertilization.
  22. Why can't the gymnosperms grow as annual plants?
    Gymnosperms cannot grow as annual plants because they do not have rapid production of seeds.
  23. Do plants prefer outbreeding or inbreeding?
    Plants prefer outbreeding, which gives them more variation.
  24. What is the function of fruit flowering plants?
    The function of the fruit of the flowering plants is to desperse the seeds widely so the parents are not in competition with the offspring.
  25. Why do plants expend so much energy in the production of fleshy fruits?
    The payoff in the production of fleshy fruits is to get animals to eat them and to disperse their seeds when the animal defecates.
  26. What is the primary polysaccharide component of fungi cell walls?
    The primary polysaccharide of fungal cells walls is chitin.
  27. What is the largest organism on the earth?
    The largest organism on earth is a yellow honey mushroom fungus in eastern Oregon, that covers 4 square miles.
  28. What are root fungi called and what does a plant get from it, and what does the fungi get from it?
    Root fungi are called mycorrhizae which provides phosphorous and nitrogen from the soil to the plant, and the plant provides carbohydrates to the fungus. This is a symbotic relationship.
  29. Is there anything you might eat that might increase the changes of giving birth to twins?
    Yes, try eating lots of white yams, a staple in the diet of Nigerians. White yams may posses estrogen compounds that stimulate a woman's ovaries to release more than one egg.

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