intergrated science 3 annoying science test.txt

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intergrated science 3 annoying science test.txt
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  1. What are the various types of electromagnetic radiation?
    Gamma Rays, X-Rays, Ultraviolet light, visible light, infared radeation, microwaves, and radio waves
  2. What do spectral lines show
    Spectral lines identify the elements present and the star's chemical composition
  3. What is the doppler effect used to determine
    It is used to determine whether or not a star or other body in space is moving away or towards earth
  4. Electromagnetic spectrum
    The arrangment of light waves according to their wavelegnth and frequencies
  5. Photon
    Small particles of light that exert force
  6. Spectroscopy
    The study of the properties of light that depent on wavelegnth
  7. Continuous Spectrum
    An uninterupted band of color
  8. Absorption Spectrum
    When visible light is passed through a relativley cool gas under low pressure, where some of teh colors are observed
  9. Emission spectrum
    Produced by hot gas under low pressure, series of bright lines of particular wavelegnths. Each element or compond in its gaseous form produces a unique set of spectral lines
  10. Doppler Effect
    The perceived change in wavelegnth of a wave taht is emitted from a souce that is moving away or towards an object.

    • Towards: waves are squished, appearing bluer
    • Away: waves are stretched, appearing redder
  11. Name the four parts of the sun
    The solar interior, the visible surface/photosphere, two atmosphering layers (chromosphere and corona)
  12. Why do sunspots appear dark
    They are a lot colder than the surronding solar surface
  13. What are prominences
    Promeninces are ionized gases trapped by magnetic fields that extend from regions of intense solar activity, cloudlike
  14. What form of energy do solar flares release
    Unltraviolet redio and xray
  15. What happens in nuclear fusion
    Elements are fused together. Some energy is released because some matter is converted into energy
  16. Photosphere
    Layer that radiates most of the sunlight we see, the "surface"
  17. Chromosphere
    Above the photosphere, not visible., produces an emission spectrum reverse of absorption spectrum of photosphere
  18. Corona
    The outermost portion of the solar atmosphere, very weak.
  19. Solar Wind
    Stream of particles and proton s and electrons taht travel outward through the solar system
  20. Sunspots
    Dark regions on the surface of the photosphere
  21. Prominence
    Cloudlike structures consisting of chromospheric gases. Ionized gasses trapped by magnetic feilds
  22. Solar flares
    breif outbusts of energy at a sunspot clustre releasing unltraviolet radio and xray radiation. Fast moving atomic particles are ejected
  23. What does a prism do
    Seperates the visible light into may colors by bending each wavelegnth at a different angle
  24. What color has the longest wavelegnth
    Red
  25. Star's spectrum can tell astronomers ..?
    the stars chemical composition
  26. Which type of spectrum does the radiation from most stars produce
    Emission spectrum
  27. What does the use of doppler effect tell astronomeers about a star
    Whether a star is moving away or towards Eart
  28. What spectrum does an incandescent lightbulb producse
    Continuous spctrum
  29. What happens at the core of the star
    Nuclear fusion
  30. Streams of electrons and protons that shoot out from the sun's corona are the solar....?
    wind
  31. Sunspots appear darker on the sun's surfaace because
    They are coler than the rest of teh surface
  32. What is the effect of solar flares on earth
    Creates auoras
  33. When the sun produces energy, it consoumes hydrogen and produces
    Helium
  34. The sun can countinue to exist in its present stable state for another
    5.5 billion years
  35. why is an understanding of light importatnt to astronomers
    Almost everything we know about the univesre is about light
  36. The arrangment of electromagnetic waves is called the
    spectroscopy
  37. THe nature of light
    Particles and waves
  38. Particle of lights are called
    photons
  39. how are frequency and wavelegnth related
    shorter wave higher frequency
  40. Electromagnetic radiation travels at the speed of
    light
  41. WHo was the first astronomer to have used telescopes for asttronomical obsercations
    Galeleo
  42. The grainy appearance of the sun's surface is due to moving columns of gas called
    granuales
  43. the halo like area around the sun's disk that is visible during a solar eclipse is the
    corona
  44. ENergy is transmetted inside the sun through
    Convection and radiation
  45. The sun's atmospher consists of the corona and the
    chromosphere
  46. The number of sunspots increases and decreases in a cycle of
    11 years
  47. The sun's energy is created in the area in and around its
    core
  48. Spectroscopy is the study of the properties of light taht depend on
    waveleghnth
  49. When a wave source ismoving toward or away from an object, the wavelegnth changes, a phenomenon knowh as the
    doppler effect
  50. HOw do astronomers determine whether stars are moving towards or wau from earth
    Doppler Effect/REd-blue shift
  51. What is nuclear fusion
    Nuclear fusion powers stars. It is a process where a nuclear reaction joins two or more nucleus to form one heavier one
  52. What happens when a sound source approaches an observer
    The pitch becomes higher
  53. What is the doppler effect and how is it used
    The doppler effect is the change in wavelegnth of a wave as it moves towards or away from an object. Away: longer. Closer: shorter. It is used to see if objects in space/stellular bodies are moving to or away from Earth.
  54. What are the parts of the sun and where are they located
    • Guts
    • Core
    • Radiation Zone
    • Extirior
    • Convection Zone
    • Photosphere
    • Atmosphere
    • Chromosphere
    • Corona
  55. True or false? Different parts of teh sun rotate at different speeds
    True
  56. During nuclear fusion, what is converted into energy
    Matter
  57. In what form is most of the energy from nuclear fusion released?
    Photons
  58. How did the sun get hot enough to start nuclear fusion
    As gas got compressed, the temputare rose.
  59. What does color tell us about a star
    Color tells us how hot a star is
  60. What can binary stars be used for
    Determining stellar mass
  61. What are parrallax angles
    Angle that measures the distance the star has moved
  62. What factors control the apparent brightness of a star
    Size, Heat, disatnce
  63. What does a Hertzsprung-Russell DIagram show
    The relationshop between the absolute magnitude and temperature of stars
  64. Constellation
    patterns of stars
  65. Binary Stars
    Stars pulled towards each other by gravety. Use to determine other star's mass. More than 50% of stars in the universe may occour in pairs or multiples
  66. Light-Year
    The distance light travels in one year: 9.5 trillion km
  67. Apparent Magnitude
    A star's brightness as it appears from Earth
  68. Absolute Magnitude
    The absolute brightness of a star, determined by measuring brightness from 32.6 light years away.
  69. Main-Sequence Star
    The most common group of stars, a band that runs from upper left to lower right on the diagram
  70. Red Giant
    very bright, and large stars. Top right of diagram
  71. SuperGiant
    Super large red giants, top center right of diagram
  72. Cepheid Variables
    Stars that fluctuate in brightness, get brighter and fantern in a regular pattern. Light Period.
  73. Nova
    The sudden brightening of a star, when the outer layer of a star is ejected at a high speed
  74. Nebulae
    Clouds of dust and gases in teh vacum of stars. Emission nebulae consist of hydrogen and absorb ultraviolet radiation. UV-> Visible

    Reflection nebulae reflect other stars. Composted of dence clouds of large particles called intersteallar dust
  75. How is a star born
    A star is born when the core of a protostar reaches at leat 10 million K, starting nuclear fusion
  76. Protostar
    A developing star not hot enough to start nuclear fusion
  77. Supernova
    The end of life of a huge star, an explosion, millions times brighet than at prenova
  78. White Dwarf
    Remains of low mass and medium mass stars. Extremley small, but very very high densities
  79. Neutron Stars
    The remains of supernovas, electrons are forced to combined with protons to produce nuetrons. Super dense, pea sized: 100 million tons
  80. Pulsar
    A small dying star that radiates short bursts or pulses of radio energy
  81. Black Hole
    Remains of suupernova, smailler than neutron stars, very dense with super high gravity, denser than neutron star, nothing, not even light can escape.
  82. THe mass of a star can by determined by studying...?
    Binary star systems
  83. What color will a star be with a surface temperature of 5000-6000K
    Yellow
  84. Are paralax angles larger smaller if the star is closer to us
    Paralax anglesare larger when the star is closer to us
  85. How far is a light year
    9.5 trillion kilometers
  86. Is age a factor in apparent brightness
    No
  87. Star a is farther away from Earth than star b. Both stars have the same absolute magnitude. Which star will have a larger apparent magnitude?
    Star A will have a greater magnitude, it is not as bright from our view, and thus, has a higher magnitude
  88. What relationship does a Hertzsprung-Russell diagram show?
    The relationship of temperature and absoulte magnitude/brightness
  89. What percent of stars are main sequence stars?
    90%
  90. Before a star is born, the matter that will become the star exists as what
    Cool, dark nebula
  91. A star is thought to be born when
    A protostar reaches a high enough temperature for nuclear fusion
  92. Into which life cycle stage will the sun enter next
    Red giant phase
  93. All stars, regardless of their size, eventually
    Run out of fuel and collapse
  94. What remains after a low mass or medium mass stars dies?
    A white dwarf
  95. How many light years thick is the Milky way at it's nucleus
    10, 000 light years thick
  96. According to the information recieved from radio telescopes, where is our sun positioned in the milky way?
    Within one of the spirals
  97. About 60% of all galaxies are of what type
    Elliptical Galaxies
  98. Sciencientists know the universe is expanding because of the
    Red shift of distant galaxies
  99. According the big bang theroy, the entire universe began as a
    Hot, dense, supermassive ball
  100. What is evidence of the big BANG?
    Cosmic background raditaions
  101. What are the three properties of stars
    Mass, tempature, distance from earth
  102. True or false? A star's color can tell you what it's approximate tempature is.
    True
  103. What can binary stars be used for?
    Binary stars can be used to determine the mass of a star.
  104. What is the apparent change in position of a star when seen from the oppisite sides of Earth's orbit called?
    Parallax Angles
  105. How many stars have parallax angles measured?
    Only a few thousand stars are known with certainty.
  106. What are reflection nebulae made of?
    Dense clouds of interstellar dust.
  107. In a red giant, what two things are used to produce energy?
    Hydrogen and gravitational energy.
  108. What kind of galaxy is the milky way
    A spiral galaxy.
  109. What differ galaxies?
    Shape, Size, and Age of their stars.
  110. What is the life cycle of low mass stars?
    Nebula -> Protostar -> Main sequence -> White dwarf -> Black dwarf
  111. What is the life cycle of a medium mass star?
    Nebula -> Protostar -> Main sequcne -> Red giant -> Planetary nebula -> White Dwarf -> Black dwarf
  112. What is a planetary nebula
    A planetary nebula are clouds of gases from the outer layers of former medium mass red giant
  113. What is the life cycle of massive stars?
    Nebula -> Protostar -> Main sequence -> SuperGiant -> SuperNova -> Neutron star or Black whore
  114. What is the aproximate absolute magintude and surface tempature of a protostar
    4000k, Magnitude 0
  115. What is the absouleet magnitude and surface tempature of a giont star
    4500 K, Mag -8
  116. What is the absolute magnitude and surface temperature of the planetary nebula?
    15,000K, Mag 8
  117. How do we study black holes
    They find evidence of matter dissapearing into apparent nothingness.
  118. How can a Hertzspring-Russell diagram be used to show the evolution of a star?
    It can shoow the various phses in the evolution of a star.
  119.  What phases has the sun gone through?
    The sun has gone from dust and gases, into a protostar, and then into a main-sequence star.
  120. How old is the universe?
    About 13.7 million years
  121. What was the start of the universe?
    Tiny singularity much smaller than a proton
  122. What proof do we have of the Big Bang
    Cosmic background radiation
  123. What elements were produced by what
    Hydrogen and helium: Big Bang. Up to iron: stars. Iron-Uranium: Supernovae
  124. What is the size of the Milky Way
    10,000 years thick at its nucleus and 100,000 light years wide
  125. What does CMBR stand for?
    Cosmic background microwave radiation
  126. When was the Big Bang first proposed
    1920s
  127. The British astronomer martin Rees hypothesizes that there could be an infinite number of what?
    Different universies
  128. Pluto's moon was not discovered until when
    1978
  129. When was pluto discovered?
    1930
  130. Pluto if the first planet to be discovered by a
    American
  131. Many scientists suspect that pluto is just a comet of what belt
    The Kuiper Belt
  132. What is Proxima Centauri and how many times far away is it than the Earth from the moon
    It is the second closest star to us and it is located 100 million times farther away from us than the moon
  133. Between 1980 and 2003, how many supernovas did the Reverent Rob Evans of Austraila discover using a simple backyard telescope?
    36
  134. About how many stars are visible to the naked eye from Earth?
    6000
  135. About how may stars can be seen from Earth using a 2 inch telescope?
    300,000
  136. Max planck ignored those who told him to avoid physics, and started doing ground breaking work on what
    electromagnetism
  137. Who suggested mass and energy were the same thing
    Albert Einstein
  138. Scientists are away of at least how many galaxies?
    140 Billion
  139. Why is it difficult to study the Milky Way using optical telescopes?
    There is dust absorbing much of the light from the center of the galaxy
  140. What are the ages for each type of galaxy?
    Elliptical: old, Irregular: young, Spiral: mixed
  141. What is the hubble's law?
    The rate at which objects in space move is proprtional to their distance from Earth. The farther away from us, the faster moving.
  142. What are the three ways the universe could end
    • - Big Crunch: universe starts shrinking, crushing everything
    • - Big Rip: Too much dark energy, universe expands too fast, ripping everything apart
    • - Big Freeze: Universe gets too big, less heat, everything dies. It is unknown what will happen to the time-space continuum.
  143. What is the Drake equation
    It is an equation to show the probability of intellegent life somewhere else in the universe
  144. According to Einstein, what is the nature of space
    It is part of the 4d curved time space contium
  145. At least how wide is the universe?
    100 Billion Light Years
  146. Who is Arno Penzias
    Astronomer at Bell Labs with Robert Wilson finding the background radiation.
  147. Who is Percival Lowell?
    Discovered Pluto
  148. Who is Fritz Zwicky
    Came up with the term super nova in the 1930s, and proposed dark matter.
  149. Who is The Reverend Rob Evans?
    Worked at a church in Australia, discovered many supernovae
  150. Who is Fred Hoyle
    Explained the creation of the elements and made the term "Big Bang" while disproving the theory himself.
  151. Who is Neils Bohr
    Created a thory introducing quantum physics
  152. Who is Edwin Hubble, Annie Jump Cannon and Henrietta Swan Leavitt
    Hubble and his computers discovered the Cephia variable, and Hubble's law
  153. Who is Albert Einstein
    Swiss patent clerk, time space continium
  154. Who is Clyde Tombaugh
    Discovered the planet Pluto

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