Psych Final

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Psych Final
2012-12-18 00:14:43

PSYC 1020 Final
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  1. Psychoanalytic Approach
    • Freud
    • emphasizes UNCONSCIOUS aspects of personality
  2. Conscious
    aware of it
  3. Preconscious
    aware if we think of it
  4. Unconscious
    not aware of it
  5. Id
    • pleasure and gratification
  6. Ego
    • negotiates between id and superego
  7. Superego
    • knows right & wrong
  8. Oral Stage 
    • BIRTH-1 YEAR
    • we obtain nourishment through mouth & it is the focus of pleasure
    • Fixations: smoke, chew gum, etc. (have to have something in your mouth)
  9. Anal Stage
    • 1-3 YEARS
    • we learn to control our bowels
    • Fixations: "anal retentive"
  10. Phallic Stage
    • 3-6 YEARS
    • need to resolve oedipus/electra complex 
    • Fixation: attracted to older adults
  11. Oedipus Complex
    youg boys desire their mothers and dislike their fathers
  12. Electra Complex
    young girls desire their fathers  & dislike their mothers 
  13. Latency Stage
    • 6-12 YEARS/PUBERTY
    • absence of a stage
    • no impulses/pleasure
  14. Genital Stage
    • reproduction is the goal
    • Fixations: fetishes, promiscuity
  15. Trait 
    internal tendency to behave a certain way across situations throughout our lives
  16. Secondary Traits (ALLPORT)
    • occur in certain situations 
    • not very consistent
  17. Central Traits (ALLPORT)
    • traits that occur in MOST situations
    • core tendencies
  18. Cardinal Traits (ALLPORTS) 
    • occur in all situations
    • may/may not exisit
  19. Openness
    degree a person is thoughtful/open to new ideas & experiences
  20. Conscientiousness
    degree you are aware of others/details of a task
  21. Extraversion
    degree your energy is directed outward
  22. Agreeableness
    how well you get along with others/conform
  23. Neuroticism
    degree of emotional stability
  24. Introversion/Extraversion
    focus on the inner world/outter world
  25. Sensing/Intuition
    focus on hard data & info/interpret it & go with your gut
  26. Thinking/Feeling
    made decisions based on logic/consider special circumstances & others' feelings
  27. Judging/Percieving 
    like things planned out/rather take things as they come
  28. Reciprocal Determinism
    • Bandura
    • personality is determined by out environment, behavior, & thoughts
  29. Self-Efficacy
    we will be successful in a certain area
  30. Hierarchy of Needs
    • Maslow
    • 5. Self-Actualization
    • 4. Esteem
    • 3. Belonging & Friends
    • 2. Safety Needs
    • 1. Biological Needs
  31. 5. Self-Actualization
    what we're meant to do/be
  32. 4. Esteem
    confidence, respect, self-esteem
  33. 3. Belonging 
    friends, relationships
  34. 2. Safety Needs
  35. 1. Biological Needs
    food, air, water
  36. Actualizing Tendency
    people naturally strive for fulfilment & growth
  37. Onconditional Positive Regard
    accepting others for who they are; not judging or expecting anything in return
  38. Objective Personality Test
    • closed answer, true/false items 
    • MMPI-2
  39. Projective Personality Tests
    • psychoanalytic basis, present ambiguous stimuli & ask for open-ended answers (triggers unconscious) 
    • Rorschbach Inkblot 
    • Thematic Apperception
    • Sentence Completion
  40. MMPI-2
    • Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory
    • 567 true/false items
  41. Rorschbach Inkblot Test
    asking what someone sees in a random inkblot
  42. Thematic Apperception Test 
    person sees a pic of a situation & is asked to tell a story about it 
  43. Sentence Completion Test
    person completes an ambiguous sentence
  44. Four Aspects of Abnormal Behavior  
    • 1. Statistical Infrequency
    • 2. Violation of Social Norms
    • 3. Personal Distress
    • 4. Level of Impairment
  45. 1. Statistical Infrequency 
    behavior is unusual compared to statistics of others' behavior
  46. 2. Violation of Social Norms
    behavior doesn't compare with social norms
  47. 3. Personal Distress
    behavior causes the individual to be distressed
  48. 4. Level of Impairment
    behavior interferes with a person's ability/causes oneself or others distress
  49. Pevelance of Psychological Disorders
  50. Axis I
    • psychological disorders
    • depression, anxiety, phobias, amnesia, substance abuse, amd schizophrenia
  51. Axis II
    • personality disorders, mental retardation (lifelong condition)
    • negatively affects a person's ability to function
  52. Axis III
    • general medical conditions, physical problems/conditions
    • cancer, diabetes, arthritis
  53. Axis IV
    • environmental problems
    • physical/sexual abuse or experiencing a traumatic event
  54. Axis V
    • global assesment of functioning 
    • GAF scale: numerical scale that evaluates a person's level of functioning (high #=high level of functioning)
  55. Reexperiencing Symptoms (PTSD)
    • Intrusive thoughts
    • Dreams
    • Flashbacks
    • Distress @ cues
    • Physiological reactivity @ cues
  56. Avoidance/Numbing Symptoms (PTSD)
    • Avoid thoughts/feelings
    • Avoid activities
    • Amnesia
    • Lack of interest
    • Feelings of detachment
    • Lack of feelings
    • Belief in foreshortened future
  57. Hyperarousal Symptoms (PTSD)
    • Difficulty sleeping/concentrating
    • Anger outbursts
    • Hypervigilence (predictng how you will avoid an emergency)
    • Easily startled
  58. PTSD
    • post traumatic stress disorder
    • must experience a stressful situation where yours or anothers life was at risk
  59. Major Depressive Disorder
    • extremely depressed for at LEAST 2 weeks
    • often accompanied by annendonia (absense of pleasure)
  60. Dysthymic Disorder
    • persistently depressed mood that lasts at least 2 years 
    • symptoms are less severe than MDD
    • ex: Eeyore
  61. Bipolar Disorder
    extremely elevated or depressed mood that lasts at least 1 week
  62. Cyclothymic Disorder
    less severe than bipolar
  63. General Anxiety Disorder
    • excessive anxiety and worry about several things
    • worrying about the unnessescary details
  64. Free Association (Psyc.)
    client talks freely about whatever comes to mind
  65. Dream Analysis (Psyc.) 
    analyzing hidden symbols in a dream
  66. Manifest Content vs. Latent Content (Psyc.)
    • Manifest= real content ("Material") of a dream
    • Latent= hidden meaning that Lies within the dream
  67. Transference (Psyc.)
    patient relates to therapist like they did their parents
  68. Person-Centered Therapy
    • Carl Rogers
    • client is the expert
  69. Validation (PC)
    speaking in a way that shows you are accepting of their feelings
  70. Reflection (PC)
    repeating what the client told you in your own words 
  71. Systematic Desensitization (B)
    creating an anxiety attack, then relaxing
  72. Stimulus Control (B)
    have person avoid environment that elicits anxious response
  73. Imaginal & In Vivo Exposure
    mental images/real item is presented to gradually bring the feared object in contact
  74. ABCDE Model of Modifying Problematic Thoughts
    • A: Activating event- what started the disorder?
    • B: Beliefs- thoughts and opinions
    • C: Consequences- what you feel
    • D: Dispite the Negative Beliefs
    • E: No emotion/affect