Final_Bio-Lectures

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Final_Bio-Lectures
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  1. By the age of eight how many cocoons, called follicles, are hidden in a state of suspended animation within the ovaries of a female?
    Ther are close to 1/2 million follicles in a woman's ovaries.
  2. At the age of eight are there any signs of sperm in the testicles of a male?
    No, there are no signs of sperm in a boy's testes at the age of eight.
  3. Are there any outward signs of puberty when puberty initially begins? Does puberty start during the day or night?
    When puberty initially begins there are no outward signs, and it usually begins at night.
  4. What is the name of the hormone produced in the brain that signals the on-set of puberty.
    Gonadotropin is the name of the hormone produced in the brain that signals the onset of puberty.
  5. What effect does the hormone Gonadotropin have on the testicles?
    Gonadotropin causes the cells of the testes to organize themselves into an enornous amount of tubes, where eventually the sperm will be produced.
  6. Gonadotropins seep out of the tubes of the testes and cause these cells to produce the male sex hormone called...
    Gonadotropins seep out of the tubes of the testes and cause these cells to produce the male sex hormone called testosterone.
  7. By what age is a males body changed from a boys to a man's?
    Although hormone changes have begun at the age of eight, thirteen is the age at which a boy begins to change into a man.
  8. What effect does testosterone have on the brain?
    Testosterone seeps out of the cells of the brain, soaking through dormant cells of the reproductive circuit, which transforms his brain, and gives him a drive for sex.
  9. Over the last 5 years has Natalie's brain also changed?
    Yes, Natalie's brain over last five years has also been changing.
  10. Gonadotropin brings to life Natalie's _______, and causes the follicles to grow and an ________ inside to mature.
    Gonadotropin brings to life Natalie's ovaries, and causes the follicles to grow and an egg inside to mature.
  11. What is the name of the female sex hormone?
    The female sex hormone is termed estrogen.
  12. Do estrogen and testosterone cause new behaviors?
    Yes, testosterone and estrogen have a definitive effect on your behavior!
  13. Does the male reproductive circuits interfere with his ability to think?
    Yes, the male reproductive circuits certainly is detrimental to the ability of a male to think properly.
  14. When do the hormone levels tend to rise? What does this result in?
    Hormone levels tend to rise at night, which causes sexual arousal.
  15. When a male has an erection, how many times bigger than normal does it get?
    The male erection is 5-times larger than normal.
  16. Which gender starts puberty later, but grows faster and looks more mature? What hormone is this due to?
    The female actually starts puberty later, but initally produces more estrogen, which has the effect of making her grow and become taller than a male of the same age, and makes her look more mature, even though she is not.
  17. From where does the male get his estrogen for bone growth and what is the overall effect of this in comparison to the female?
    The male gets his estrogen for bone growth from transforming excess testosterone into estrogen, which happens at a slower rate than a girl. estrogen causes bone growth in both males and females.
  18. Although girls think they are more mature than boys of the same age, are they any closer to producing?
    Even though girls look more mature than boys of the same age, they are no closer to reproducing than boys are.
  19. Where does a female get her testosterone, and what does testosterone do for her?
    The female gets her testosterone from her adrenal glands, which also changes her brain circuitry and gives her a sex drive. Sex drive for both males and females is due to testosterone.
  20. What does testosterone do behaviorally?
    Testosterone behaviorally gives a person a sex drive and makes them more aggressive.
  21. At high levels, what does testosterone trigger in testes?
    At high levels testosterone triggers the cells of the testes to give rise to sperm.
  22. How much greater in size does a follicle become when it matures?
    The follicles grows to 100-times greater size when mature.
  23. When you have a testosterone surge what happens to your skin?
    A big testosterone surge causes your sebaceous (oil) gland to become bigger and more moist, which results in bacterial infections and what we term a pimple.
  24. What keeps testosterone surges in women from rising?
    Estrogen keeps testosterone levels in-check in women.
  25. What does estrogen do yo a womens chest, hips and posterior?
    Estrogen causes the chest, hips and posterior to draw fats out of there surrounding tissue and to be deposited in those areas, which makes a female more attractive to a male.
  26. After a boy has created enough testosterone, it is then converted into ______ and he gets a growth spurt. (This is why boys grow slower initially).
    After a boy has created enough testosterone, it is then converted into estrogen and he gets a growth spurt. This is why his growth lags that of females.
  27. What is the drawback of rapid growth in a boy?
    The drawback of rapid growth for a boy is that it takes awhile for his brain to coordinate the muscles for the increased size of the limbs and he becomes a little uncoordinated.
  28. Does testosterone effect the muscles and penis?
    Yes, testosterone causes the muscle to produce more fiber (which thickens them and is why they are bigger than a women's) and it cause the penis to growth in girth and length.
  29. What hormone in a female cause her to develop arm pit and groin hair. What is the purpose of this hair?
    Testosterone in a female causes her to grow arm-pit and pubic hairs, which are breeding ground for bacteria that produces an odor that our ancestors (and some modern men) found/find sexually attractive.
  30. What hormone does the ovary follicle produce?
    Estrogen is produced by the ovarian follicle.
  31. What hormone is required for full follicle maturation?
    Gonadotropin is required for full follicle development.
  32. When estrogen levels in a girls falls, what happens to her skin?
    When a girl does not enough estrogen levels in her blood-which  keeps seban (oil) levels down in her oil (sebaceous) gland-then her testosterone levels are relatively high an she develops pimples.
  33. What happens to a women's womb when the estrogen levels decline?
    Also when the estrogen levels decline the lining of the uterus in the womb dies, which results in a period or menstruation.
  34. What was the purpose for the increased aggression levels caused by testosterone in our primitive ancestors?
    In our ancestors aggression was necessary to fight for a mate.
  35. Are sex and aggression circuits overlapped?
    Yes, the sex and aggression circuits of the brain are overlapped.
  36. Is the sperm cell in the tubes of the testicles capable of swimming?
    No, the sperm cell in the tubes of the testes is not capable of swimming. The tubes contract and force sperm into a special storage area (the epididymus) where they develop tails.
  37. What is unique about a girls first period?
    What is unique about a girls first period is that it has not been triggered by the production of a fertile egg cell. Which makes her incapable of reproducing at her first period.
  38. At sexual maturity-about 18 years old-what is the rate of sperm production per second. What is the rate per day?
    The rate of sperm production at 18 years old is 1000/second! Since there are 60 seconds in an hour= 60x1000= 60,000/minute; with 60 minutes per hour 60,000 x 60= 3.6 million/hour; with 24 hours in a day is 24 x 3.6 million= 86.4 million sperm/day. (It takes 3 or 4 days on the average to give a male enough sperm to be fertile.)
  39. The most momentous event of a full puberty for a female is the release of a mature _______ from the ovary.
    The most momentous event of a full puberty for a female is the release of a mature egg from the ovary.
  40. After its release, how many weeks is it before the lining of the womb is shed?
    After the release of the egg -providing it is not fertilized- there are two weeks before the shedding of the lining of the womb.
  41. For how many years will a woman produce an egg? How many total eggs will she produce during this period of time?
    A woman will produce an egg for 40 years. Since there are 12 months in a year that is 12 X 40= 480 total eggs in a lifetime.
  42. Are you necassarily adult enough to have sex when you are reproductively mature?
    No, you are not adult enough to have sex when you are reproductively mature?
  43. Why is it that human have a long and drawn out puberty?
    Apparently, humans have such a long drawn-out puberty in order to learn the complex behavioral rules of our species before sex gets in the way!
  44. What are the taxonomic characteristics of plants?
    The taxonomic characteristics of plants are: True multicellularity, cell walls with cellulose, sedentary, indeterminate growth, food stored as starch, multicellular gamete and spore chambers, retain embryos, and alternation of generation life cycle.
  45. In the alternation of generation life cycle of plants, to what does meiosis give rise?
    In the alternation of generation life cycle of plants a section of the sporophyte will undergo meiosis producing spores. The spores grow into the gametrophyte which produces the gametes.
  46. What is the functional difference between a spore and a gamete?
    Gametes have the capability (potential) of fusing with one another, whereas spores cannot do this, but can only grow into a gametrophyte.
  47. Why is the gametrophyte always small and simple? Why is it retained in the life cycle of plants?
    The gametrophyte is always small and simple to make it possible for the sperm to swim to the egg. Which is the reason it is retained in the plant cycle.
  48. Do plants have genders?
    No there is really no such thing as a gender in plants.
  49. List the three major areas of adaptations a plant must adjust to inhabiting a dry terrestrial environment.
    The three major areas of adaptations a plant must adjust to in inhabiting a dry terrestrial environment are; (1) Strengthing tissue to grow tall and resist the effects of gravity, (2) Prevent drying out, and (3) Sexually reproduce in a dry environment.
  50. Give an example of a non-vascular seedless plant.
    Mosses, liverworts and hornworts are examples of Non-vascular, Seedless plants.
  51. Why are the non-vascular seedless plants so small?
    Non-vascular seedless are small because they have no vascular tissue for strengthening and transport.
  52. What are the two functions of vascular tissue?
    The two functions of vascular tissue are the transport of water, mineral and food, and support.
  53. When did the non-vascular seedless plants evolve?
    The non-vascular plants evolved 400 million years ago.
  54. Are the non-vascular seedless plants well adapted to a dry environment structurally or reproductively? Do they have a stromata and cuticle?
    The non-vascular plants are neither well adapted structurally or repproductively to a terrestrial environment. They do not possess a cuticle or stomata.
  55. What are the four main characteristics of vascular plants?
    The four main characteristics of vascular plants are: (1) True roots, stems and leaves, (2) Cuticle and stomata, (3) Sporophyte is dominant and complex, and (4) Much bigger than non-vascular plants.
  56. Give an example of a seedless vascular plant.
    Ferns, horsetails, club mosses (not a true moss), are examples of seedless vascular plants.
  57. Why are ferns structurally well adapted to an arid terrestial environment?
    The ferns are structurally well adapted to an arid environment because they possess a cuticle with stomata to help regulate water loss.
  58. What is it about fern reproduction that keeps them tied to a moist environment?
    Reproductively ferns are tied to a moist environment because they possess wimming sperm.
  59. List three reproductive advances made by the seed plants over the ferns.
    The three reproductive advances made by the seed plants over the ferns were: (1) Seeds, which allows a baby plant to wait to grow until it rains, (2) Retain the spores (no spore dispersal) and hence, the vulnerable gametrophyte is retained on the sporophyte, which is eventually wrapped up within the seed as food for the baby plant, and (3) Pollen grains, which are tailess sperm cells. The seed food is really a packaged gametophyte.
  60. What are the three parts of a seed? What is the food inside the seed, really?
    The three parts of a seed are the seed coat, food (the female gametophyte, really) and a baby plant.
  61. Define a pollen grain.
    A pollen grain is a tailless sperm.
  62. Do seed plants have spores? Do they disperse their spores?
    Yes, all plants possess spores, but you do not notice them because the seed plants do not disperse their spores, but retain them, where they grow into very small gametophytes, either in the cones, or in the flowers.
  63. What do male and female cones contain?
    Male cones contain pollen; female cones contain eggs and eventually the seeds. 
  64. What do you expect to find the pollen cones near the bottom or top of a conifer tree? Why?
    Pollen cones are expected to be found near the bottom of the tree help prevent self-pollination.
  65. What is special about the pollen grains of conifers?
    Pollen grains of conifers possess wings that aid in dispersal by the wind.
  66. What two reproductive features allowed the flowering plants to out compete the cone bearing plants?
    The two reproductive features of flowering plants that helped them out compete the conifers are the flowers and fruit (expanded ovaries).
  67. What is the function of flowers?
    The function of the flower is to attract pollinators.
  68. What is the function of fruits?
    The function of fruit is to disperse seeds.
  69. What are the three vegetative parts of a typical plant? What are vegetative parts suppose to do?
    The three vegetative parts of the plants are roots, stems and leaves. Vegetative parts are concerned with growth and maintenance of a plant.
  70. Name the three reproductive parts of a typical plant?
    The three reproductive parts of a plant are the flowers, fruits and seeds.
  71. What are the functions of flowers, fruits, and seeds?
    • Flower-to attract pollinators
    • Fruit-to disperse seeds.
    • Seeds-reproduction.
  72. If the age of the planet were considered into a year, in what month did the first plants appear on the land?
    In the age of the planetwere considered into a year, plants first appeared at the begining of November.
  73. Moving out of the water presented a serious problem of ______, in order to withstand the effects of gravity.
    Moving out of the water presented a serious problem of support, in order to withstand the effects of gravity.
  74. The ancestors of plants was a...
    The ancestors of plants was a green algae.
  75. What keeps mosses tied to the water?
    A swimming sperm keeps the mosses tied to the water.
  76. Are sperm of liverworts mobile?
    Yes, the sperm of liverworts are mobile.
  77. The moss capsule contains microscopic grains of _______, which grow into new moss plants. What environmental factor is responsible for dispersal of the spores of mosses and liverworts?
    The Moss capsule contains microscopic grains of spores, which grow into new moss plants. Wind is the environmental factor that disperses the spores.
  78. Each segment of a millipede has a _______ for breathing.
    Each segment of a millipede has a spiracle (hole in the abdomen) for breathing.
  79. What were the 1st animal hunters on the land? Who were the 1st daytime hunters?
    The first animal hunters on the land were scorpions, while the first day-time hunters were the spiders.
  80. Without water to transport sperm to egg, how do animals get their gametes close together?
    Without water to transport the sperm to the egg animals had to get together.
  81. How tall were the moss forests?
    The moss forests were only a few inches high.
  82. Does a moss plant have real roots and leaves?
    No, mosses do not possess real roots, stems and leaves.
  83. The next forests have thicker cell walls, which give them the ability to grow _______.
    The next forests have thicker cell walls, which give them the ability to grow tall.
  84. What was the size of the horsetail forest 300 million years ago?
    300 million years ago the horsetail forests were 90 feet tall (30 meters)
  85. How do tall tree ferns overcome the problem of height in sexual reproduction?
    The tall tree ferns overcame the problem of height in sexual reproduction by continuing to produce spores, which grow into small gametophytes, where the sperm does not have a great distance to swim.
  86. Why do the fern plants that are produced from spores, have to remain small?
    The smallness of the gametophyte makes it physically possible for the sperm to swim to the egg.
  87. Where are the spores of a Tree Fern produced?
    Spores of tree ferns are produced on the underside of its leaves.
  88. Flight was the great achievement of the _______. How long did they have the air to themselves?
    Flight was the great achievement of the insects. They had the air to themselves for over 100 million years.
  89. The sex cell producing stage of a fern would be safer if it took place in the top of the tree, but this would require some way of ______ the sex-cells from tree to tree. They could use the wind for this, or ______.
    The sex cell producing stage of a fern would be safer if it took place in the top of the tree, but this would require some way of transferring the sex-cells from tree to tree. They could use the wind for this, or they could use insects.
  90. The 1st kind of plants that kept the sex cell stage fixed to the tree stage were the...
    The 1st kind of plants that kept the sex cell stage fixed to the tree stage were the cycads.
  91. What is contained in the male cones of cycads?
    Pollen is contained in the male cones of cycads.
  92. Where do we find the 200 million-year-old fossils of conifers in Arizona? How tall did these conifers grow?
    Petrified Forest of Arizona are 200 million-year-old fossils of conifers.
  93. Are the male and female cones on the same tree in conifers?
    Yes, male and female cones are normally on the same tree.
  94. What falls out of male cones?
    Pollen falls out of male cones.
  95. What do conifers use to transport their pollen?
    Conifers use the wind to transport their pollen.
  96. What falls out of male cones?
    Seeds fall out of female cones.
  97. Do conifers need the help of water for fertilization?
    No, conifers do not need water for help in fertilization.
  98. How much of the current world's forests are made up of conifer trees?
    1/3 of the world's forests are conifers.
  99. What is the biggest organism in the world? How tall is it, and what is its diameter?
    A Giant Sequoia Tree, name the General Sherman tree is the biggest living organism in the world. It is 112 meters (367 feet) tall with a 12 meter (40 foot) diameter.
  100. The most effective predators on insects are the...
    The most effective predators on insects are the spiders.
  101. Have insects evolved much in the last 200 million years?
    No, the insects have stayed pretty much the same for the last 200 million years.
  102. Which group of plants brought color to the land?
    Flowering plants brought color to the land.

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