Botany

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anime1003
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189950
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Botany
Updated:
2012-12-18 11:45:19
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Final exam
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  1. microphyl
    leaf with one vein
  2. megaphyl
    leaf with multiple veins
  3. enation
    small flap of tissue
  4. megasporangia
    sporangium that produces megaspores
  5. microsporangium
    sporangium that produces microspores
  6. Megaspore
    develope into female gametophytes
  7. Microspore
    develope into male gametophyte
  8. sporangium
    holds spores on the surface of leaves
  9. megasporocyte
    diploid cell that developes into megaspore 
  10. sporphyll
    modified leaf that holds spores
  11. strobilus
    cone, compounded sporophyls
  12. homospores
    one kind of spores
  13. microsporocytes
    diploid cell developes into microspore
  14. heterospores
    magaspores and microspores
  15. endosporic
    developes inside spore wall
  16. exosporic
    developes outside spore wall
  17. 4 important gymnosperm ancestors
    • Progymnosperms
    • Seed ferns
    • Cordatales 
    • voltziales
  18. 3 phyla of Byophytes
    • hepatophyta
    • anthocerophyta
    • bryophyta
  19. 4  phyla of Seedless vascular
    • psilotophya
    • lycophyta
    • sphenophyta
    • pterophyta
  20. 4 phyla of Gymnosperms
    • coniferophyta
    • cycadophyta
    • ginkophyta
    • gnetophyta
  21. phyla of Angiosperms
    anthophyta
  22. hepatophyta
    liverworts
  23. anthocerophyta
    hornworts
  24. bryophyta
    mosses
  25. Psilotophyta
    wisk ferns
  26. Lycophyta
    club/spike mosses
  27. sphenophyta
    horetails
  28. pterophyta
    ferns
  29. coniferophyta
    conifers
  30. cycadophyta
    cycads
  31. ginkophyta
    ginko
  32. Gnetophyta (three genera)
    • ephedra
    • gnetum
    • welwitschia
  33. Anthophyta
    • monocotyledons
    • eudicotoledones
  34. Dichotomous branching
    • 2 branch points (smaller and smaller)
    • Limited 2° xylem and no 2° pholem
  35. three orders of lycophyta
    • Lycopodiales- club moss
    • selaginelleales- spike moss
    • isoetales- quilworts
  36. 2 theories for formation of simple leaves
    • Telomes were reduced
    • Vascular “trace” invaded an enation (flap of vegetative tissue)
  37. 6 native species of clubmoss to MN
    • annotonum-stiff clubmoss
    • clavatum- running club moss
    • complanatum- groundcedar
    • dendroidem- tree groundpine
    • huperzia lucidula- shining clubmoss
    • huperzia selago- fir clubmoss
  38. homospory
    • One kind of spore
    • Bisexual gametophytes
  39. Heterospory
    • Two kinds of spores
    • Separate male and female gametophytes
  40. 2 native species of spike moss to MN
    • Selaginella rupestris-northern selaginella
    • Selaginella selaginoides-club spikemoss
  41. MN native quilwort
    Isoetes tenella- spinyspore quillwort
  42. two genera of Psilotophyta
    • psilotum
    • tmesipteris
  43. Psilotum
    • Tri-lobed sporangia
    • One kind of spore – Homosporous
    • Gametophyte - bisexual
  44. spenophyta- horetails
    • Scouring rushes
    • Epidermal cells contain silica
    • Whorled microphylls
    • Hollow jointed stem
  45. hydroids
    water transport cells
  46. leptoids
    food transport cells
  47. Features shared between Bryophytes and Vascular plants
    • Layer of sterile, protective cells around gametes
    • Multicellular embryo protected in female parent Multicellular, diploid sporophyte produces spores by meiosis Layer of sterile, protective cells around multicellularsporangia
  48. Dominant stage of Byrophytes
    Gametophyte
  49. Thalloid
    flat, sheet like structures
  50. only plants to share pyrenoids with algae
    hornworts
  51. 3 classes of byrophyta
    • Spagnopsida
    • Andreaopsida
    • Bryopsida
  52. Class Spagnopsid
    Peatlands store 400 billion tons of organic carbon
  53. Rhyniophytes
    • Stems with branches of same length
    • Sporangia at the tips
  54. Zosterophyllophyta
    • Branches with short, lateral sporangia
    • Gave rise to phylum Lycophyta
  55. Trimerophytophyta
    • More branches and clusters of sporangia
    • Gave rise to 3 of the 4 living phyla of SVPs
  56. What is a seed
    • Fertilized egg (embryo)
    • Retained within a gametophyte
    • Retained within the sporophyte
    • Accessorized with sporophyte tissue (integument)
  57. Seed plants are better at passing on genes to next generation because
    • Dormant state allows for survival through winter & drought
    • Seed coat is a barrier between bacterial & fungal decay
    • Seeds attract seed eating animals which disperse seeds
    • Seeds include food for developing embryo & germinating seedling
  58. Gymnosperm seeds 
    • form on surface of leaves or branches
    • Form from a single act of fertilization
  59. Angiosperm seeds
    • Form within fruit
    • Result from double fertilization
    • Fertilization of egg
    • Fertilization of two nuclei of the megagametophyte
    • Forms endosperm which nourishes the embryo
  60. 4 gropus gymnosperms
    • Progymnosperms
    • Seed ferns
    • Cordaitales
    • Voltziales
  61. Progymnosperms
    • No seeds
    • Did produce wood
  62. Seed ferns
    • Looked like tree ferns
    • Had seeds
  63. Cordaitales
    Gave rise to ginkgos
  64. Voltziales
    Gave rise to coniferophyta & gnetophyta
  65. prothalial cells
    no known function
  66. generative cell
    produces sperm
  67. Advantages of gymnosperms
    • Xylem 
    • Lack vessel element 
    • Lower vulnerability to freezing 
    • Leaves 
    • Less surface area 
    • Reduced susceptibility to freezing and drying 
    • Rounder at tree top 
    • Long lived (2-50 yrs) 
  68. efficient use of water in gymnosperms
    • Recessed stomata reduces water loss 
    • Waxy epidermis 
    • Hypodermis protects w thick celled walls 
  69. cycadophyta
    have flagulated sperm
  70. 3 genera of gnetophyta
    • gnetum
    • ephedra
    • welwitschia
  71. gnetophyta
    • have vessel elements
    • no antheridia
    • no archegonia
  72. 4 whorls of angiosperms
    • gynoecium
    • calyx
    • corrola
    • androecium
  73. gynoecium
    female: stigma, style, ovary
  74. Calyx
    Sepal
  75. Adroecium
    Male: Stamen, Anther, Filament
  76. Corrola
    petal
  77. 3 parts of ovary
    • exocarp
    • mesocarp
    • endocarp
  78. 3 classification of fruits
    • simple fruits
    • aggregate fruits
    • multiple fruits
  79. simple fruits
    • one flower
    • on carpel
    • (apple)
  80. aggregate fruits
    • one flower
    • many seperate carpels
    • (stawberry)
  81. multiple fruits
    • many flowers
    • many gynoeecium
    • (pineapple)
  82. kinds of simple fruits
    • Fleshy-berries
    • Dry- wildrice
  83. stamen
    • filament
    • anther
  84. carpel
    • stigma
    • style
    • ovary
  85. Ovary
    contains ovules
  86. ovule
    cotains megagametophyte
  87. megagametophyte
    contains 7 cells
  88. embryo
    1 sperm + 1 egg
  89. endosperm
    1 spem + 2 polar nuclei
  90. angiosperms
    • create flowers/fruits
    • have vessel elements

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