AP Bio 5

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doctorwhogirl998
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189984
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AP Bio 5
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2012-12-17 19:51:18
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AP Bio
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AP Bio 5
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  1. macromoleclues
    carbohydrates, protiens, and nucleic acids are all huge and in this catorgory.
  2. polymer
    is a long molecule consisting of many similar or identical building blocks linked covalently
  3. monomers
    the repaeting units that polymers as made out of 
  4. enzymes
    specialized marcomoleclue taht speeds up chemical reactions
  5. Dehydration reaction
    Monomers are connected by your reaction in which 2 molecules are covalently bonded to each other with the loss of a water molecule
  6.  hydrolysis
     a process that is essentially the reverse of the dehydration reaction. Hydrolysis means to break using water.
  7.  Carbohydrates
     include both the sugars and polymers of sugars. The simplest carbohydrates are the monosaccharides or simple sugars.
  8.  Monosaccharides
     generally have molecular formulas that are some multiple of the unit CH2O.
  9.  disaccharide
     consists of 2 monosaccharides joined by a glycoside linkage, a covalent bond formed between 2 monosaccharides by a dehydration reaction.
  10.  Polysaccharides
     are macromolecules, polymers with a few hundred to a few thousand monosaccharides joined by like a sidekick linkages. Some polysaccharides serve as storage material, hydrolyzed as needed to provide sugar for cells.
  11.  Starch
     plants store starch,  polymer of glucose monomers,  
  12.  cellulose
     is a major component of the tough walls that enclose plant cells
  13. lipids
     are grouped together because they share one important trait: they mix poorly, if at all, with water. The hydrophobic behavior of lipids is based on their molecular structure.
  14.  Fat
     is constructed from 2 kinds of smaller molecules: gycerol and fatty acids
  15.  fatty acid
     has a long carbon skeleton, usually 16 or 18 carbon atoms in length
  16.  saturated fatty acid
     if there are no double bonds between carbon atoms composing a chain, then as many hydrogen atoms as possible are bonded to the carbon skeleton. Such a structure is to be saturated with hydrogen, and the resulting fatty acid therefore called a saturated fatty acid
  17.  unsaturated fatty acid
     has one or more double bonds, with one if you were a hydrogen atom on each double bonded carbon.
  18.  Phospholipids
     are essential for cells because they make up cell membranes. Their structure provides a classic example of how former states function at the molecular level
  19.  steroids
     are lipid characterized by a carbon skeleton consisting of 4 fused rings
  20.  cholesterol
     is a crucial molecule in animals. It is a common component of animal cell membranes and is also the precursor from which others steroids are synthesized
  21.  catalysts
     chemical agents that selectively speed up chemical reactions without being consumed by the reaction.
  22. Polypeptides
    polymers of amino acids. When 2 amino acids are positioned so that the carboxyl group of 1 is adjacent to the amino group of the other, they can become joined by a dehydration reaction, with the removal of a water molecule
  23.  proteins
     is a biological functional molecule that consists of one or more polypeptides, each folded and coiled into a specific three-dimensional structure
  24.  amino acid
     is an organic molecule possessing both a amino group and a carboxyl group. At the center of the amino acid it is an asymmetric carbon atom called the alpha carbon.
  25. R group
    also called the side chain, differs with each amino acid. The physicochemical properties of the side chain determines the unique characteristic of a particular amino acid, thus affecting its functional role as a polypeptide.
  26.  primary structure of proteins
     the primary structure of a protein is a linked series of amino acids with a unique sequence. The primary structure dictates secondary and tertiary structure, due to the chemical nature of the backbone and side chains of the amino acid position along the chain
  27.  secondary structure
     these coils and folds are the result of hydrogen bonds between the repeating constituents of the polypeptide backbone
  28.  alpha helix
     a delicate coil held together by hydrogen bonding between every 4th amino acid is one secondary structure
  29.  tertiary structure
     is the overall shape of a polypeptide resulting from interactions between the side chains or are groups of the various amino acids
  30.  disulfide bridges
     formalwear to cytosine monomers, which have sulfhydryl groups (-SH) on their side chains are brought close together by the folding of the protein
  31.  quaternary structure
     is the overall proteins structure that results from the arrangement of these polypeptide subunits
  32.  chaperonins
     are crucial to the folding process, proteins are molecules that assist in the proper folding of other proteins. They keep the new polypeptide segregated in the saddle plasmatic environment while it folds spontaneously
  33.  polynucleotides
     nucleic acid are macromolecules that exist as polymers
  34.  nucleotides
     is composed of 3 parts; a nitrogenous base, a 5 carbon sugar, and 1 or more phosphate groups
  35.  pyrimidine
     has won its 6 member Lena of carbon and nitrogen atoms. The members of the family are cytosine, T, and U.
  36. purines
     larger, with the six-member ring fused to a five-member ring. These consist of  adenine and guanine.

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