--Addition of external sources of power, such as oil or coal, to hand tools and modes of transportation.
Colonization also important feature
--Form of domination in which one country imposes its political, economic, social, and cultural institutions on an indigenous population and the land it occupies
Major Economic Systems
Capitalism- raw materials and means of producing and distributing goods and services are privately owned.
--- Profit driven, free of government interference, consumer driven.
Socialism- raw materials and means of producing and distributing goods and services are collectively owned.
Institution that regulates the use of and access to power that is essential to articulating and realizing individual, local, regional, national, international, and global interests and agendas.
People in high positions can only have their positions if people at the bottom agree.
Power and Authority
Authority: legitimatepower (just, proper)
Traditional: relies on sanctity of time-honored norms that govern the selection of someone to a powerful position (chief, king, queen) & specify responsibilities and appropriate conduct for the individual selected
Charismatic: drives from exceptional & exemplary qualities of the person who issues the commands
Legal-rational: rests on system of impersonal rules that formally specifies the qualifications for occupying a powerful position
Forms of Government- Democracy
Power vested in citizen body, and citizen body participate directly in decision making process.
Forms of Government- Totalitarianism
1) single ruling party lead by a dictator
2) an unchallenged official ideology that defines a vision of the perfect society and the means to achieve that vision
3) a system of social control that suppresses dissent and opposition
4) centralized control over the media and the economy
Forms of Government- Authoritarianism
No separation of power and a single person (dictator), group (family, military) or social class holds all power
Forms of Government- Theocracy
Political authority rests in the hands of religious leaders or a theologically trained elite; no separation of church and state.
Any behavior/appearance that is socially challenged because it departs from norms.
Written and unwritten rules specifying appropriate and inappropriate behavior
Deviance that breaks the law
punished by formal sanctions
Methods used to get people to comply with norms.
--Positive-football players dressing as cheerleaders
--Negative- getting a traffic ticket
--Formal- going to deans office for being in trouble
--Informal- stopped for speeding but just getting a warning
Theoretical Perspectives- Functionalist
Functions of Deviance:
1) Adaptive- introduce new ideas
2) Boundary maintenance- keeps in check norms of society, group solidarity.
Theoretical Perspectives- Stain Theory
1) Valued goals have unclear limits
2) People are unsure whether means exist to reach goals
3) Opportunities to meet goals closed to some
Strain between goals and means lead to:
Criticize self for not meeting goal when they do no have equal access to opportunity
Lower strata individuals compare selves to those at top
Pressure for ambition to highest goals
Conformity- go to office everyday to earn money
Innovation- get created to get the goal done- not a legitimate way (Al Capone)
Ritualism- give up on cultural goals- still conform just not in their mind (office space)
Retreatism- drug abusers that become homeless dont want to work 9-5 everyday- given up on the system
Rebellion- reject norms and cultural norms but they want to change culture (rosa parks)
Theoretical Perspectives- Interactionalist
Deviance socially constructed through interaction between people or groups.
DIFFERENTIAL ASSOCIATION THEORY –some social environments teach deviant activities.
Theoretical Perspectives- Labeling Theory
Moral entrepreneurs not only create rules but hey also enforce them. --Moral crusaders, Rule creators and enforcers, Outsiders
Four categories of people-- conformists, pure deviants, secret deviants, falsely accused.
Theoretical Perspectives- Conflict Perspecive
Individuals choose to engage in deviance in response to inequalities of capitalist system or to challenge the social order.
Laws are tools used by powerful to maintain own privilege
criminal justice system favors whites, upper class
Social reality of crime
Religion encompasses those human responses that give meaning to the ultimate and inescapable problems of existence birth, death, illness, aging, injustice, tragedy, and suffering
Sociologist are concerned and not concerned with?
Not concerned with:
–Whether God or supernatural exists
–Whether beliefs are valid
–Whether one is better than another
–Aspects of religion (commonality?)
–Functions vs. Dysfunctions
–Conflict within/between groups
–Way it shapes behaviors and understandings
–Way it is intertwined with soc, econ, pol issues
Muslim women wearing hijab
American women wearing makeup and clothes for male gaze.
Sacred- everything that is regarded as extraordinary and that inspires in believers deep and absorbing sentiments of awe, respect, mystery, and reverence.