Card Set Information
12 17 2012
list romanticism keywords
When was the Romantic Period?
What were some Romanticism philosophy and historical features?
2.Parallels movement in art history
3. Outgrowth of the revolutions
4. Power transferred to middle class
5. Importance of the individual
6. Personal freedom prized
7. Personal expression prioritized
8. Natural (raw) emotions eclipse intellectualism
a. wildness of nature
(1) era of landscape painting
b. the picturesque
c. the descriptive
d. the passionate
e. the dramatic
: looking to other cultures
b. emotional flavor and picturesqueness
, allusion, suggestion, ambiguity
a. find return to the ornate, lush, irregular
a. era of nation-state construction
b. the soul of the nation is found in folklore
c. folkloric subjects
d. nature, landscape, rurality = kinship with
List some musical characteristics of Romanticism
Art transcends life; Person and Art are one
a. Great composers and their Masterworks
2. Boundlessness as expansion
b. movements and works
g. timbres, instrument combinations
h. technical demands on performers
(2) facilitated also by technological
improvements to instruments
What can best categorize Mugorsky's Picture at an Exhibition?
Russian Popularism, Realism, and Nationalism
Who visualized Mugorsky's Picture at an Exhibition?
painting by Victor Hartmann
What was the message behind Mugorsky's Picture at an Exhibition?
political agenda and supported by the "Mighty Five", which Mugorsky was involved
Who wrote Picture at an Exhibition and when?
Mussorsky and 1874
Picture at an exhibition used which type of language?
Everyday language of Russian folk songs
Who were apart of the Mighty Five or the Mighty Handful?
Mussorsky, Borodin, Cui, Rimsy-Korsakov, Balakirev
What happened during 19th Century Russia?
1. The Wanderer painting
2. artistic movement
3. Populists vs. Cosmopolitans
4. free music schools vs. expensive conservatories
Who did Rimsky-Korsakov taught?
What do the Wanderer paintings represent?
How did 19th Century Russia created a national music style?
1. used folk songs and instrumental tunes
-created new harmonic and modal structures that dissolved major-minor tonality
2. Viewd customs, vernacular language, legends, and folk tales
3. Inspiration from history....like people, places, things, landscapes....to promote nationalism
Describe 19th century Russian Chorus
1. a capella
2. women sang in low voice range while men sang in high range
3. entrances are together than staggered
4. include men, women, and mixed group...mostly women now
5. solo begins all songs and is followed by chorus
what is Russian chorus called?
what is russian solo entrance called?
Describe the melodies of Russian chorus
1. songs of everyday life
2. in modal modes
: aeolian, mixylodian, dorian, etc.
3. features falling fifths and fourths
4. irregular pulse
5. repetitive motives
describe 19th century russian music texture
3. repetitive motives and music leaning towards tonic
when did Ravel orchestrated Picture at an exhibition?
List some of Victor Hartmann's paintings
1. The Jew in the fur cap
2. the poor jew from sandomir
the sketches of costumes from "Trilby"
hut of baba yaga in form of clock
plan for a city's gate
What lead to populism?
Alexander II's educational reforms
what were some characteristics of Russian populism?
rebelling against aristocracy
depict art in the eyes of peasants
revived and populized folktales and legends
Artists of the Wanderers
Repin, Ge, Surikov, Kramskoi
When was the Wanderers founded?
Why were the mighty five important?
created russian school of composition
created nationalistic musical styles
used russian traditions and cultures for inspirations
use of folktunes
use of russian language
Describe the wanderers painting techniques
photographic painting technique
used living people
great detail attention
who comprised of the artistic movement of literature for 19th century russia?
Tolstoy, Puskin, Lermontov, Dostoevsky
list several of Mussorsky's compositions
Picture at an Exhibition,1874
Night on a bald mountain, 1867
Sunless...song cycle, 1874
songs and Dances of death...song cycle, 1875
the nurser...song cycle 1872
in the picture at an exhibition, what language was the promenade in and which movement?
russian and 1,3, 4, and 7
Ballet of the unhatched chicks in picture at an exhibition was which movement and in what language?
8 and french
the bogatyrs gate was which movement of PX, represents which ancient capitol city, and in what language?
city of Kiev
language is Russian
the hut on hen's legs is which movement of PX and what language?
how is PX romantic?
programmatic music-tells story of Mussorskys visit to art museum
melodies changes moods often
exotic subjects like Baba yaga, catacombs, from other lands
used 6 different languages
how is PX nationalistic?
use of folklore
inspirations from history
created new compositional style
how does PE represents populist realism?
self portrait of living people
folkloric and historical people
social connections to paintings
used asian and other non western music influences
close boundaries of sound and noise
what were some of the major 20th century music trends?
serialism, experimentalism, electronic music, neo-romanticism, minimalism, post-minimalism, spirit minimalism
list some of John cage childhood
went to Pomona college
studied under Cowell and influenced by Schoenberg
what was the composition style characteristics of John Cage?
Asian influences from Indonesia and China
Tell two things about I Ching(Book of Changes)
inspired by China
composed by John Cage
Who created 4'33"?
John Cage to close gap between noise and sound
Who wrote Prepared Piano? What year? Styles?
John Cage, 1938
inspired by Javanese Gamelan....sounds very rhythmic
objects were inserted between key strings of piano
Why did John Cage became fascinated with gamelan?
interlocking rhythms and melodies
Who composed Sonatas and Interludes, Sonata V? When?
John Cage, 1946
Describe Sonatas and Interludes, Sonata V by John Cage, 1946
16 sonatas divided into 4 groups of 4
grand piano keys were adjusted with objects in between key strings to emulate gamelan
list 4 things about the origins of minimalism
originally an art movement
simple geometric shapes
no extreme contrasts
Describe minimalism music composition style
repetitive motives, fragments, rhythms
gradual or subtle musical transformation
who was the originator of minimalism?
la monte young
who were the five minimalist composers?
la monte young
which two composers were post-minimalists?
reich and adams
describe hindustani classical music
modes depended on mood/daytime
: Rag or Raga
repetitive rhythmic cycle
which countries inspired La monte young? which compositional style does he prefer?
hindustani and japan
prefers drones, hums, sustained sounds
which countries inspired Riley? which compositional style does he prefer?
hindustani and jazz improvisations
influenced by la monte young
who were classmates learning under Pran Nath?
Riley and young
who wrote In C? when?
which countries influenced Glass?
Hindustani, middle east
glass worked for whom during his career?
who composed Floe from glassworks?
Describe Glass's musical style
focus on harmonic changes
Explain Balinese gamelan
interlocking of parts
explain javanese gamelan
instrument tune in pairs
quick changes in tempos
abrupt stops and starts
more metallic sounds
describe african musical characteristics
Where did Glass get his inspiration from? Steve Reich? Riley?
: Hindustani, Himalayas, Middle East
: Balinese and Africa
: Hindustani and Jazz
describe reich's musical style
focus on accoustic instruments
what were some of reichs pieces?
music for pieces of wood
what inspired reich's electric counterpoint?
transcending coventional time and space
what promoted globalization?
multiple identities/ communities
who influenced john adams?
reich and cage
who composed the doctor atomic?
which topics does john adams usually compose for?
contemporary controversial topic
describe john adams musical style
more lush harmonies and melodies
list some of john adams works
death of klinghoffer
nixon in china
the chairman dances
when was doctor atomic written?
who was a proponent of spiritual minimalism?
describe spiritual minimalism
a european movement
inspirations from sacred texts
modal or tonal
metered or unpulsed
what is tintinabulation?
describe arvo part's musical characteristics
simple melodies-want to work with as few elements as possible
: parallel fourths and fifths
describe cantate domino's notation
lines above neumes meant longer duration
describe cantate domino's texture
homophonic, monophonic, diaphonic, homorhythmic
describe cantate domino's texts
devotional christian psalm
how does cantate domino reflect gregorian chant influences?
pulsed, but with nonmetric feeling
syllabic text setting
how does cantate domino represent russian orthodox?
octave doubling and converges
how does cantate domino represent tintinabulation?
bell ringing triads
drones and arpeggiations to imitate bells
how does spiritual minimalism categorized?
absence of rhythmic complexity
what is serialism?
pitches are called 12 tones
who or what became proponents of serialism?
second vienese school
who became proponents of experimentalism?
what pieces represent experimentalism
Cage's prepared piano
: music as noises, asian influences
Cowell- microtones, tone clusters
Partch- designed new instruments, asian influences, microtones(43 tones), percussion
who were part of the Avant-Garde? and what were they?
Avant-Garde- a part of experimentalism
who were proponents of electronic music?
what was machover's style of electronic music?
hyperinstruments, infusing accoustic music with technology
what was andersen's style for electronic music?
technology driven multimedia art performances
what was varese's style for electronic music?
what is musique concrete?
using recorded sounds as raw material and the assembly/recoriding of unique sounds so it can be played backwards, forwards, or in any way
return to emotions, traditional harmonic forms
what is the new virtuosity?
difficult and technical music demands of the 20th and 21st century
What is classism? philosophical and aesthetic views?
looked to grego roman antiquity for inspirations
aimed for balance beautiful sound
list two classiciam literature writer
List philosophers of classism
When was the Classic period?
list some of classism musical features
proportion and balance
what is the form of classism?
ternary and rounded binary and sonata allegro
What was musical genre for classism?
secular music for the nobility
serious and comic operas
who were part of the vienese school?
what is mehterhane?
turkish janissary orchestra
what is boru or nefir?
what is a zurna?
double reed aerophone
what is kos?
kettledrum and ancestor of timpani
what is nekkare?
small kettle drum
what is davul?
like bass drum
what is Zil or Halile?
what is cevgen?
what is caghana?
jingly hat rod
how does mehterhane translate into west europe idiom?
topics/plots of dramatic works
monophonic or modal melodies
melodic jumps upset classical balance
how were composers affected by mehterhane music?
alla turca pieces
operas with turkish scenarios
what was the mannheim school of music?
proponent is Stamitz
what is the
Empfindsamkeit (Empfindsam style)?
precursor to the romantic period
"true to feelings"
motives than melodies
abrupt textural shifts
intense emotional music
in north germany...1750
who were proponent of Empfindsam style?
bach, quartz, vivaldi
what were the musical styles of the rococco period?
galant style, empfindsam style, mannheim school
explain the gallant style of the rococco period
light and bright emotions
who were proponents of gallant style in rococco period?
bach, couperin, tartini
when was the rococo or the pre-classical age?
how does the viennese use of "turkish music" signify political significance?
reference to ottoman wars, napoleon, military
how does the viennese use of "turkish music" signifiy aesthetic signiface?
caricature- objectifying the enemy
how does the vienese use of "turkish music" signify philosophical significance?
made european more superior
focus on liberty and democracy
how does the viennese use of "turkish music" signify musical significance?
promote military bands
expansion of orchestras
new musical styles
who were janissaries?
bodyguards of sultans