A&P Ch8 Terms

Card Set Information

Author:
mac519
ID:
190050
Filename:
A&P Ch8 Terms
Updated:
2012-12-18 13:00:41
Tags:
nervous system
Folders:

Description:
Vital vocab for the nervous system
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user mac519 on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. the cranial nerve (VI) that supplies the lateral rectus muscle of the eyeball (lateral movement)
    abducent nerve
  2. the cranial nerve (XI) that provides motor innervation to the muscles of the soft palate and the pharynx and to the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscle
    accessory nerve
  3. a neurotransmitter secreted by the autonomic nervous system
    acetycholine
  4. an enzyme that rapidly destroys acetycholine once it has reached the target tissue
    acetylcholinesterase
  5. electical signals passing along nerve fibers
    action potentials
  6. endocrine glands located on top of the kidneys that release adrenaline when stimulated by the sympathetic nervous system
    adrenal glands
  7. description of a neuron that secretes the neurotransmitter norepinephrine
    adrenergic
  8. a receptor stimulated by the neurotransmitter norepinephrine
    adrenergic receptor
  9. nerves that carry impulses from the body to the brain and provide input to the brain about sensations
    afferent nerves (sensory nerves)
  10. fibers that carry sensory information from the periphery to the brain
    afferent tracts (ascending fibers)
  11. one of two adrenergic receptors classified into two structural and functional categories. This is further subdivided into alpha-1 and alpha-2 receptors
    alpha receptor
  12. ascending fiber tract that carries information to the brain about light touch, pressure, and tickling and itching sensations
    anterior spinothalamic tract
  13. the middle membrane of the three meninges that enclose the brain and spinal cord
    arachnoid
  14. fibers that carry sensory information from the periphery to the brain
    ascending fibers (afferent tracts)
  15. several structures located throughout the brain stem that are responsible for maintenance of consciousness
    ascending reticular activating system
  16. a division of the nervous system that operates without conscious control and regulates the function of the internal organs, glands and smooth muscle
    autonomic nervous system
  17. one of the major nerves emanating from the brachial plexus, it supplies the deltoid and teres minor muscles, enabling arm abduction and lateral rotation
    axillary nerve
  18. a projection from a neuron that makes connections with adjacent cells
    axon
  19. structures located deep within the cerebrum, diencephalon, and midbrain that play an important role in coordination of motor movements and posture
    basal ganglia
  20. a common class of cardiac drugs that blocks beta effects, causing a decrease in the workload of the heart by reducing the speed of contraction, as well as reducing blood pressure
    beta-blocker
  21. one of two adrenergic receptors classified into two structural and functional categories. These are further subdivided into beta-1 and beta-2 receptors
    beta receptor
  22. the plexus of spinal nerves that consists of nerves C5 and T1 and innervates the shoulder and upper extremity
    brachial plexus
  23. part of the central nervous system, located within the cranium and containing billions of neurons that serve a variety of vital functions
    brain
  24. the midbrain, pons, and medulla collectively
    brain stem
  25. numerous individual nerve roots that extend from the spinal cord at the level of the second lumbar vertebra
    cauda equina
  26. the brain and spinal cord
    central nervous system
  27. one of three bands of nerve fibers through which the cerebellum communicates with other regions of the CNS
    cerebellar peduncles
  28. the region of the brain essential in coordinating muscle movements of the body
    cerebellum
  29. the largest portion of the brain, it controls the higher thought processes
    cerebral cortex (cerebrum)
  30. fluid produced in the ventricles of the brain that flows in the subarachnoid space and bathes the meninges
    cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
  31. the largest portion of the brain, it controls the higher thought processes
    cerebrum (cerebral cortex)
  32. description of a neuron that secretes the neruotransmitter acetylcholine
    cholinergic
  33. specialized cells within hollow areas in the ventricles of the brain that produce CSF
    choroid plexus
  34. a major nerve of the leg, providing sensation to the lateral leg and dorsum of the foot and motor activity to hip extensors, knee flexors, ankle dorsiflexors, and toe extensors
    common peroneal nerve
  35. ascending fiber tracts that coordinate movements, especially of the hands
    corticospinal tracts
  36. the 12 pairs of nerves that arise from the base of the brain
    cranial nerves
  37. an agent that blocks transmission of neural motor impulses at the neuromuscular junction
    curare
  38. a component and branch of the common peroneal nerve that innervates the muscles that dorsiflex the ankle and extend the toes
    deep peroneal nerve
  39. a projection from a neuron that makes connections with an adjacent cell
    dendrite
  40. an area of skin supplied by a given spinal nerve
    dermatome
  41. fibers that carry motor impulses from the brain to the fibers of the peripheral nervous system
    descending fibers (efferent tracts)
  42. the part of the brain between the brain stem and the cerebrum that includes the thalamus, the subthalamus, hypothalamus, and epithalamus
    diencephalon
  43. one of two roots of a spinal nerve that passes posteriorly into the spinal cord and contains the dorsal root ganglion
    dorsal root
  44. a ganglion on the dorsal root of each spinal nerve
    dorsal root ganglion
  45. the outermost of the three meninges that enclose the brain and spinal cord, it is the toughest membrane
    dura mater
  46. nerves that carry commands from the brain to peripheral muscles
    efferent nerves (motor nerves)
  47. fibers that carry motor impulses from the brain to the fibers of the peripheral nervous system
    efferent tracts (descending fibers)
  48. part of the diencephalon with uncertain functions
    epithalamus
  49. the cranial nerve (VII) that supplies motor activity to all muscles of facial expression, the sense of taste to the anterior two thirds of the tongue, and cutaneous sensation to the external ear, tongue, and palate
    facial nerve
  50. the branch of the lumbosacral plexus that innervates the muscles that flex the hip and extend the knee
    femoral nerve
  51. a withdrawal reflex in the flexor muscles of the limbs that contract in response to an unpleaseant stimulus
    flexor reflex
  52. a large opening at the base of the skull through which the spinal cord exits the brain
    foramen magnum
  53. the portion of the brain that is important in voluntary motor actions and personality traits
    frontal lobe
  54. collections of nerve cell bodies located outside the CNS
    ganglia
  55. a separation between two nerves (preganglionic and postganglionic neurons), in a series between the CNS and the organs innervated
    ganglionic synapse
  56. the cranial nerve (IX) that supplies motor fibers to the pharyngeal muscle, providing taste sensation to the posterior portion of the tongue, and carrying parasympathetic fibers ot the parotid gland
    glossopharyngeal nerve
  57. the numerous folds in the cerebrum, which greatly increase the surface area of the cortex
    gyri
  58. the cranial nerve (XII) that provides motor function to the muscles of the tongue and throat
    hypoglossal nerve
  59. the most inferior portion of the diencephalon, it is responsible for control of many bodily functions, including heart rate, digestion, sexual development, temperature regulation, emotion, hunger, thirst, and regulation of the sleep cycle
    hypothalamus
  60. a short canal through which auditory and facial nerves pass
    internal auditory meatus
  61. openings between successive vertebrae through which nerves exit the vertebral column
    intervertebral foramen
  62. ascending fiber tracts that carry information to the brain about pain and temperature
    lateral spinothalamic tracts
  63. structures within the cerebrum and diencephalon that influence emotions, motivation, mood, and sensations of pain and pleasure
    limbic system
  64. subdivisions within each hemisphere of the cerebrum. each one of these is named for the bone of the skull that overlies it
    lobes
  65. the crevasse that separates the right and left hemispheres of the cerebrum
    longitudinal fissure
  66. a needle insertion into the vertebral canal to obtain a specimen of CSF
    lumbar puncture
  67. a combination of the lumbar plexus, the sacral plexus, and the coccygeal root
    lumbosacral plexus
  68. the nerve in the brachial plexus that innervates the pronator muscles of the forearm, as well as those that flex the wrist, fingers, and thumb
    median nerve
  69. the inferior portion of the midbrain, which serves as a conduction pathway for both ascending and descending nerve tracts
    medulla
  70. a set of three tough membranes, the dura mater, arachnoid, and pia mater, that encloses the entire brain and spinal cord
    meninges
  71. an inflammation of the meninges and CSF, usually caused by infection
    meningitis
  72. nerves that carry commands from the brain to the muscle
    motor nerves (efferent nerves)
  73. receptors at the target tissue that are stimulated by acetylcholine and can also be stimulated in the laboratory by the compound extracted from muscarine mushrooms
    muscarinic receptors
  74. a nerve in the upper extremity that innervates muscles that flex the shoulder
    musculocutaneous nerve
  75. a membrane formed by Schwann cells, which cover the axons of certain neurons
    myelin sheath
  76. an axon surrounded by a membrane sheath produced by Schwann cells
    myelinated nerves
  77. nervous tissue that connects the nervous system with body parts or organs
    nerve
  78. groups of nerve cells that are bundled together
    nerve fibers
  79. specialized tissue that conducts electrical impulses between the brain and the rest of the body
    nervous system
  80. the target tissues of the autonomic nervous system
    neuroeffector cells
  81. one of two basic types of neural tissue, these support, protect, defend and aid in the repair of injury of neural tissue
    neuroglia
  82. a group of drugs derived from curare that are used in anesthesia to induce muscle relaxation
    neuromuscular blocker
  83. the receptor on the muscle for nerve impulses
    neuromuscular junction
  84. cells that transmit nervous system impulses
    neurons
  85. chemicals produced by the body that stimulate electrical reactions in adjacent neurons
    neurotransmitters
  86. receptors in the postganglionic neuron that can be stimulated in the laboratory by the alkaloid nicotine
    nicotinic receptors
  87. regions between individual Schwann cells in myelinated neurons, between which action potentials jump
    Nodes of Ranvier
  88. a neurotransmitter secreted by the autonomic nervous system
    norepinephrine
  89. a nerve emanating from the lumbosacral plexus that innervates muscles that adduct the thigh and rotate it medially
    obturator nerve
  90. the portion of the brain that is responsible for the processing of visual information
    occipital lobe
  91. the cranial nerve (III) that innervates the muscles that cause motion of the eyeballs and upper lid
    oculomotor nerve
  92. the portion of the olfactory nerve formed by the olfactory tract that lies on the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone and is penetrated by nerve fibers that provide information about smell to the nose
    olfactory bulb
  93. the cranial nerve (I) that transmits information about the sense of smell
    olfactory nerve
  94. the part of the olfactory nerve that arises at the base of the brain
    olfactory tract
  95. a continuation of the optic nerve, which forms an "X" under the hypothalamus
    optic chiasma
  96. the openings through which the optic nerves pass to reach each eyeball
    optic foramina
  97. the cranial nerve (II) that transmits visual information to the brain
    optic nerve
  98. the parts of the optic nerve that arise at the base of the brain, forming the optic chiasma
    optic tracts
  99. the part of the autonomic nervous system that relaxes the body
    parasympathetic nervous system
  100. a drug that blocks acetylcholine at the neuroeffector synapse
    parasympathetic-blocking drug
  101. the portion of the brain that is the site for reception and evaluation of most sensory information, except smell, hearing and vision
    parietal lobe
  102. nerves that arise from the different plexuses to branch and supply motor function and sensation to many areas of the body
    peripheral nerves
  103. the portion of the nervous system that consists of nerves that extend from the CNS to peripheral structures outside the CNS
    peripheral nervous system
  104. the innermost of the three meninges  that enclose the brain and spinal cord, it rests directly on the brain and spinal cord
    pia mater
  105. part of the epithalamus in the diencephalon
    pineal body
  106. an organized intermingling formed by several nerves
    plexus
  107. the portion of the brain stem that lies below the midbrain and contains nerve fibers that affect sleep and respiration
    pons
  108. the space behind the knee
    popliteal fossa
  109. the second of two nerves, separated by a ganglionic synapse, in a series between the CNS and the organs that are innervated
    postganglionic neuron
  110. the end of a nerve where electrical impulses are received from the synaptic cleft
    postsynaptic terminal
  111. information about the body's position and of its parts in relation to itself, to one another, and to the pull of gravity
    proprioception
  112. one of the major nerves in the upper extremity, it supplies muscles that extend the elbow, supinate the forearm, and extend the wrist, fingers, and thumb
    radial nerve
  113. ascending fiber tracts that are involved in involuntary body movements
    reticulospinal tracts
  114. a small nerve
    rootlet
  115. nervous tissue that helps form the myelin sheath around certain neurons
    Schwann cells
  116. the longest peripheral nerve in the body, formed by the combination of the common peroneal nerve and the tibial nerve
    sciatic nerve
  117. pain and muscle weakness that travels from the back, into the buttocks, and along the leg into the foot as a result of irritation of a lumbar spinal nerve root
    sciatica
  118. nerves that carry impulses from the body to the brain and provide input to the brain about sensations that are felt
    sensory nerves
  119. the part of the central nervous system that extends downward from the brain through the foramen magnum and is protected by the spine
    spinal cord
  120. nerves in the peripheral nervous system that arise from the numerous rootlets along the dorsal and ventral surfaces of the spinal cord
    spinal nerves
  121. automatic reactions to stimuli that occur without conscious thought
    spinal reflex arcs
  122. a needle insertion into the vertebral canal to obtain a specimen of CSF
    spinal tap
  123. ascending fiber tract that carries information regarding body position (proprioception) to the cerebellum
    spinocerebellar tract
  124. a disruption of the circulation to the brain, causing brain damage and abnormal neurologic findings
    stroke
  125. a hemorrhage between the arachnoid membrane and the pia mater
    subarachnoid hemorrhage
  126. the space located between the pia mater and the arachnoid mater
    subarachnoid space
  127. the layer of gray matter located in the midbrain
    substantia nigra
  128. the part of the diencephalon that is involved in controlling motor functions
    subthalamus
  129. grooves located between the gyri in the cerebrum
    sulci
  130. the nerve in the leg that innervates the muscles of foot eversion
    superficial peroneal nerve
  131. the muscle that controls the downward gaze of the eyeball
    superior oblique muscle
  132. the part of the autonomic nervous system that is responsible for the body's response to shock and stress
    sympathetic pathway
  133. a gap between nerve cells across which nervous stimuli are transmitted
    synapse
  134. the space between neurons where electrical impulses trigger the release of neurotransmitters, which in turn stimulate an electrical reaction in adjacent neurons
    synaptic cleft
  135. vesicles that contain neurotransmitters
    synaptic vesicles
  136. the portion of the brain that plays an important role in hearing and memory
    temporal lobe
  137. the part of the diencephalon that processes most sensory input and influences mood and general body movements, especially those associated with fear or rage
    thalamus
  138. the nerve in the leg that innervates the muscles that extend the hip and flex the knee, plantar flex the ankle, and flex the toes
    tibial nerve
  139. pathways within the spinal cord that contain nerves
    tracts
  140. an episode of neurologic impairment that lasts less than 24 hours and serves as a warning sign of an impending stroke
    transient ischemic attack
  141. the cranial nerve (V) that supplies sensation to the scalp, forehead, face, and lower jaw and innervates the muscles of mastication, the throat, and the inner ear
    trigeminal nerve
  142. the cranial nerve (IV) that innervates the superior oblique muscle of the eyeball, which allows a downward gaze
    trochlear nerve
  143. the nerve in the arm that innervates muscles that flex the wrist and fingers and abduct and adduct the fingers and thumb
    ulnar nerve
  144. a neuron with no myelin sheath or white matter
    unmyelinated axon
  145. the cranial nerve (X) that provides motor functions to the soft palate, pharynx, and larynx and carries taste bud fibers from the posterior tongue, sensory fibers from the inferior pharynx, larynx, thoracic, and abdominal organs, and parasympathetic fibers to thoracic and abdominal organs
    vagus nerve
  146. one of two roots of a spinal nerve that is formed from six to eight rootlets
    ventral root
  147. specialized hollow areas in the brain
    ventricles
  148. the bony canal formed by vertebrae that houses and protects the spinal cord
    vertebral canal
  149. the cranial nerve (VIII) that passes through the internal auditory meatus and transmits information important to the senses of hearing and balance
    vestibulocochlear nerve
  150. ascending fiber tracts that are involved in involuntary body movements
    vestibulospinal tracts
  151. bundles of myelinated nerves
    white matter

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview