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List/Describe the 4 types of hypersensitivity reactions
- Type I (anaphylactic): <30 minutes.
- Antigen binds to mast cells/basophils which release mediators
- Localized - Hives, hay fever, asthsma
- Systemic - May result in circulatory collapse and death
- Type II (cytotoxic): 5-12 hours.
- Involves ab againts ag on surface of cells (ABO blood)
- Type III (immune complex): 3-8 hours.
- Antibodies + soluble antigens = immune complexes
- Type IV (delayed cell-mediated): More than a day.
- Due to TD cells, cytokines attract macrophages and TC cells which initiate tissue damage
- Allergic contact dermititis
- Lupus: autoantibodies made against nuclear constituents of all cells
- Rheumatoid arthritis: autoantibodies against collagen in CT
- Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus: destruction of insulin-secreting cells of pancreas by T cells
Stem cells and why they can transform transplantation medicine
Pluripotent cells which avoid rejection
Define privelege site and explain its importance in transplantation
- Privelege sites DO NOT cause an immune response
- As such we can use alternate tissues like pig heart valves
Define grafts: list/briefly describe the 4 types
- Autograft: use of ones own tissue
- Isograft: use of identical twin's tissue
- Allograft: use of tissue from another person
- Xenograft: use of nonhuman tissue
Goal of bone marrow transplants + what is graft vs host disease, and how it is overcome
- Bone marrow transplants provide recipient with B and T cells
- G vs H disease: transplanted immunocompetent cells attack host. Use of umbilical cord blood alleviates this issue
Define immune deficiency, list/describe the two types
- Inability of body to make and sustain an adequate immune response
- Congenital: due to defective/missing genes
- Acquired: result of life experiences
All about AIDS
- HIV infects CD4 cells: immune system slowly loses CD4 cells
- AIDS = CD4 count bellow 200 cells/microliter
- CCR5 gene mutation prevents binding of HIV virus (immunity)
- Transmission through: sex, breast milk, placenta, blood