The flashcards below were created by user victimsofadown on FreezingBlue Flashcards.

  1. Differentiate between a synthetic drug, semisynthetic drug, and antibiotic
    • Synthetic drug: Not natural
    • Semi-synthetic drug: Natural sourced that is chemically modified
    • antibiotic: produced by a microbe to inhibit another
  2. List/explain the two methods for testing antibiotic effectiveness
    • Disk-diffusion test: can determine minimal bactericidal concentration AND minimal inhibitory concentration.  Cannot determine if drug is bactericidal or bacteriostatic
    • Broth dilution test: bacteria grown in various wells with various concentrations of antibiotic to see growth levels
  3. List 5 bacterial targets of antibiotics, and give one example of an antibiotic + mechanism
    • Cell wall: penicillin prevents cross-linking of peptidoglycan in GROWING cells.  Most effective against gram+
    • Protein synthesis: Erythromycin binds 50s portion of ribosomal subunit and prevents translation
    • DNA: Quinolones and fluoroquinolones inhibit DNA gyrase, preventing DNA synthesis
    • Plasma membrane: Polymyxin B attaches to phospholipids and disrupts membrane, GRAM - only
    • Metabolite synthesis: sulfonamides inhibit folic acid synthesis by competing with PABA, only bacteriostatic
  4. Explain the concern surrounding antibiotic resistance
    Antibiotic resistance causes stronger bacteria which are more difficult to fight off in case of infection
  5. Describe the mechanisms by which bacteria develop resistance
    • Aquisition of resistance genes (R factors or transposons carrying drug resistant genes)
    • Mutations
  6. Discuss how humans have contributed to the antibiotic resistance of microorganisms
    • Misuse of antibiotics (outdated/weakened, using for innapropriate conditions, antibioitcs in animal feed)
    • Failing to complete the regimen
    • Using without prescription
Card Set:
2012-12-18 14:45:02

Show Answers: