Bio-Final

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Author:
micsflashcards
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190083
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Bio-Final
Updated:
2012-12-18 17:29:43
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Final Chap 12
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Plant and Fungi Diversification.
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  1. How does your author define plants?
    A plant is a multicellular Eukaryote that produces its own food by photosynthesis and has an embryo that develops within the protected environment of the sporophyttic parent.
  2. What are the aquatic ancestors of plants?
    The aquatic ancestors of land plants were green algae.
  3. Name the green alga that is the closest living relative to land plants.
    Coleochaetes, a type of green algae, are the closest living relative of land plants.
  4. How long ago did the first land plants appear?
    The first land plants appeared about 475 million years ago.
  5. Why was it necessary for terrestrial plants to evolve before other animals could inhabitat land?
    Plants had to inhabitat the land before animals in order to provide the animals something to eat.
  6. The earliest plants had no structure to transport water and nutrients. So, how did these plants transport?
    The earliest plants, the bryophytes, have no vascular tissue and must transport water and nutrients by the slow process of diffusion and osmosis.
  7. The _______ are the liverworts, hornworts and mosses.
    The bryophytes are the liverworts, hornworts and mosses.
  8. In the bryophytes, how does the sperm get to the egg?
    In the bryophytes, the sperm get to the egg by swimming.
  9. Mounds of burning peat moss are used to dry the barley that is used to produce ________ whiskey, which gives it its characteristic taste.
    Mounds of burning peat moss are used to dry the barley that is used to produce Scotch whiskey, which gives it its characteristic taste.
  10. What two things did the development of vascular tissue do for plants?
    The evolution of vascular tissue allowed early land plants to transport water and nutrients faster and more effectively, and these thick-walled cells also allowed them to more easily withstand the effects of gravity.
  11. During the carboniferous period, which extended from _______ million years ago to ________ million years ago, ______ were a major component of huge swamp forest that eventually formed the coal deposits we are mining now.
    During the carboniferous period, which extended from 360 million years ago to 300 million years ago, ferns were a major component of huge swamp forest that eventually formed the coal deposits we are mining now.
  12. Like non-vascular plants, horsetails and ferns reproduce with...
    Like non-vascular plants, horsetails and ferns reproduce with spores.
  13. Name the two major groups of seed plants.
    The two major groups of seed plants are the gymnosperms (conifers or cone-bearing plants, and the angiosperms, or flowering plants.
  14. Name the three main parts of seed.
    The seed consists of a seed coat, a food supply or endosperm, and a baby plant.
  15. Where are the seeds of cone-bearing plants produced?
    The seeds of cone-bearing plants are produced in the big cones, called the seed cones.
  16. How long has wind pollination been around, and what plants exclusively wind pollinate?
    Wind pollination has been around 200 million years, and the gymnosperms exclusively are wind pollinated.
  17. How tall is the Coast Redwood of California?
    The Coast Redwood of California is 380 feet tall.
  18. How many years ago did the angiosperms appear?
    The angiosperms appeared 135 million years ago.
  19. How many angiosperm species are there? How many gymnosperm species are there?
    There are 250,000 species of angiosperrms, while there are only 1,000 species of gymnosperms.
  20. What are the two strategies employed by plants to attract pollinators?
    To attract pollinators plants use (1) trickery, and (2) bribery.
  21. What part of the seed of flower plants, other than the egg, comes from fertilization. How is the referred to?
    Other than the egg, the endosperm is also fertilized, and this referred to as double fertilization.
  22. Why can the gymnosperms grow as annual plants?
    Gymnosperms cannot grow as annual plants because they do not have rapid production of seeds.
  23. Do plants prefer outbreeding or inbreeding?
    Plants prefer outbreeding, which gives them more variation.
  24. What is the function of the fruit of flowering plants?
    The function of the fruit of the flowering plants is to disperse the seeds widely so the parents are not in competition with the offspring.
  25. Why do plants expend so much energy in the production of fleshy fruits?
    The payoff in the production of fleshy fruits is to get animals to eat them and to disperse their seeds when the animal defecates.
  26. What is the primary polysaccharide component of fungi cell walls?
    The primary polysaccharide of fungi cell walls is chitin.
  27. What is the largest organism on earth?
    The largest organism on earth is a yellow honey mushroom fungus in eastern Oregon, that covers 4 square miles.
  28. What are root fungi called and what does a plant get from it, and what does the fungi get from it?
    Root fungi are called mycorrhizae which provides phosphorous and nitrogen from the soil to the plant, and the plant provides carbohydrates to the fungus. This is a symbiotic relationship.
  29. Is there anything you might eat that might increase the changes of giving birth to twins?
    Yes, try eating lots of white yams, a staple in the diet of Nigerians. White yams may posses estrogen compounds that stimulate a woman's ovaries to release more than one egg.
  30. What are the three characteristics that are generally sufficient to define an animal?
    The three characteristics that all animals possess are (1) they eat other organism-heterotrophism, (2) at least some stage in their life cycle moves, and (3) they are multicellular.
  31. Of the 2 million species on earth, how many are animals?
    More than 2/3rds of the 2 million species on earth are animals.
  32. Name 4 key distinctions for the categorization of animals.
    The 4 key distinctions for the categorization of animals are (1) do they have tissues, (2) does it have radial or bilateral symmetry, (3) if the animal has a gut, does it development from front to back (protostomate), or back to front (deuterstomate). 
  33. What kind of ancestor gave rise to the animals?
    An animal-like protistan is the ancestor for animals.
  34. Name the 4 distinctive body structures of all chordates.
    All chordates, at least during their embryologic development possess (1) a notochord, which is a cartilaginous rod that extends from the head to the tail, (2) a dorsal hallow nerve chord, (3) Pharyngeal slits, and (4) a post anal tail.
  35. How do we know that the tunicates are a chordate?
    We know that the tunicates are chordates because they have free swimming bilateral symmetrical larva.
  36. What does a lancelot look like?
    A lancelet looks like a little "eel-like" animal.
  37. Did the 1st vertebrates have a moveable jaw? Name a vertebrate that does not have a jaw, but just a round opening with teeth.
    The 1st vertebrates did not have a moveable jaw, as represented by the jawless fish (ex. Lampreys and hag-fish)
  38. ______ get you to the organism you are going to eat, and _______ capture and kill it.
    Fins get you to the organism you are going to eat, and jaws capture and kill it.
  39. What did the swim-bladder of the ray-finned fish eventuallly evolve into?
    The swim-bladder of the ray-finned fish eventually developed in to lungs.
  40. What fish has sturdy fins?
    The lobe-finned fish have sturdy limbs.
  41. Name the 4 evolutionary innovations that allowed a fish to move from the water to the land?
    The 4 innovations that allowed a fish to move from the water to land are (1) lungs, (2) a rigid backbone, (3) four legs, and (4) eggs (amniotic) that resist drying out. 
  42. All terrestrial vertebrates are descendants of the ________ fish some 400 million years ago.
    All terrestrial vertebrates are descendants of the lobe-finned fish some 400 million years ago.
  43. The shelled egg appeared _______ million years ago.
    The shelled egg appeared 380 million years ago.
  44. What does tetrapod mean?
    A tetrapod is an animal with four legs, or parts that are modifications of four legs.
  45. What is the difference between non-amniotic eggs and amniotic eggs? Which groups have which?
    The non-amniotic eggs of amphibians does not possess a shell, is much like fish eggs, and have to be deposited in water, while the amniotic eggs of reptiles, birds and some mammals has a shell and resist drying out.
  46. What organisms live a "double-life"?
    Amphibians lead a double life, having a fish-like stage (tadpoles) and a terrestrial stage with lungs and legs.
  47. Soon after the amniotic vertebrates appeared, two different evolutionary lineages began to diverge. One was the _______, the group to which humans belong, and the other was the reptiles (including the _____)
    Soon after the amniotic vertebrates appeared, two different evolutionary lineages began to diverge. One was the mammals, the group to which humans belong, and the other was the reptiles (including the birds)
  48. What are the characteristics that hold the bird-crocodile-dinosaur group together?
    The characteristics that hold the bird-crocodile-reptile group together are similarities of bones, especially the head and legs, and their DNA sequences.
  49. Did feathered dinosaurs appear before birds?
    Feathered dinosaurs appeared before birds.
  50. For what purpose did the feathered dinosaur Sinosauropteryx use its feathers?
    The feathered dinosaur  Sinosauropteryx probably used its feathers to attract females and to aggressively display to other males.
  51. How many years ago did flying birds evolve?
    Birds evolved 147 million years ago.
  52. What structure of birds gives them insulation and allowed them to evolve warm-bloodedness?
    Feathers were probably initially used by birds for insulation, which allows them to be warm-blooded.
  53. What group gave the rise to the mammals?
    Reptiles gave rise to the mammals.
  54. What is the function of hair in mammals? What is the function of the mammary glands?
    The function of hair in mammals is to provide insulation so they too could be warm-blooded. Mammary glands enable nursing of young.
  55. What anatomical change allowed the mammals to run faster and farther than the reptiles?
    The anatomical change in mammals that allowed them to run faster and further than the reptiles was longer legs held vertically under the body, and not off to the side like reptiles.
  56. Distinguish between monotremes, marsupiels, and placentals.
    Mammals are wither montremes that lay eggs and have 2 nipples (ex. platypus) marsupials, which have a pouch with nipples where the young complete their development, and placentals where the young development within the uterus and mother transfers her nutrients to the young through the placenta.
  57. Name the three characteristics of primates that allowed them to be arboreal (tree) animals.
    The three features of primates that allowed them to be arboreal were (1) forward direct eyes allowing greater accuracy of depth, (2) arms that can rotate, and (3) retention of 10 fingers and toes, and an opposable thumb in order to grasp branches.
  58. Who is the humans closest living relative and by what percentage do we differ in our DNA base sequences? Name the three main ways humans differ from chimpanzees.
    The chimpanzee is the closest living relative, which only differ by 1% in their DNA sequencing. The three ways we primarily differ from a chimpanzee is (1) humans are bipedal, (2) humans are bigger, and (3) humans have bigger brain.
  59. About how long ago did humans and chimpanzees separate from our common ancestor?
    Humans and chimpanzees separated from their common ancestor 5-6 million years ago.
  60. Of the three main ways humans differ from chimpanzees, which one came first, second, third and at what times?
    Humans became bipedal first, about 3.5 to 4 million years ago, then developed a bigger brain about 2 million years ago, following by a bigger body about half a million years ago.
  61. What is the benefit of walking on two legs opposed to four?
    The primary advantage of bipedal locomotion was probably energetic efficiency which uses less energy than a quadruped.
  62. What bipedal group arose 3.5-4 million with a cranial capacity of 350-400cc? Their teeth jaws indicate they subsisted on a diet of...
    The 1st bipedal group, 3.5 to 4 million years ago, with a cranial capacity of 350-400 cc were australopithecines. Their teeth and jaws indicate they subsisted on a diet of leaves, soft fruit and nuts.
  63. With which ancestor do we first find stone tools, a cranial capacity twice that of chimpanzees, and smaller teeth?
    The 1st ancestor with stone tools, smaller teeth, and a cranium twice that of a chimpanzee was Homo habilis.
  64. Which Homo was the first to migrate out of africa and spread through eastern europe and Asia, and which remained in africa and eventually evolved into modern humans?
    Homo erectus was the 1st to migrate out of africa and spread throughout eastern Europe and Asia, while Homo ergaster remained in Africa and eventually became modern humans.
  65. How many years ago did the first Homo sapiens evolve.
    The 1st modern humans, Homo sapiens evolved about 100,000 years ago in Africa.
  66. Mitochondrial DNA indicate that initial modern human migration out of africa followed three major pathway. Name them
    • spread to Europe
    • southeast to southern asia
    • through to Indo-australia
  67. Who did modern Homo Sapiens encounter in Europe?
    Modern Homo sapiens encountered Homo neanderthalensis (Neanderthals) in Europe.
  68. Which two Humans did Homo sapiens encounter as they migrated through Indo-Australian Archipelago?
    In the Indo-Australian Archipelago Homo sapiens encountered Homo erectus and Homo floresiensis (the hobbit).
  69. Which human was first to use fire?
    The 1st to use fire was Homo erectus.
  70. Which invertabrate group is the only deuterostomate?
    The only invertebrate deuterostomate group are the Echinodermata.
  71. Which phylum has the largest number of species, about 75% percent of all the animals on Earth?
    The animal species with the largest number of species, about 75% are the arthropods.
  72. In echinoderms, is it the adult or larva that has chordate characteristics? 
    In the echinoderms it's the larva that has chordate characteristics.
  73. What are the 3 stages of most insects?
    Most insects go through a larva stage, a pupa stage, and an adult stage.
  74. What is the name of the land dwelling arthropods that have 4 pair of legs and poison their prey?
    Arachids (spiders and scorpions) have 4 pair of legs and all poison their prey. 
  75. Which two spiders of North America are dangerous to humans?
    The North American spiders that are very dangerous are the Black widow, and the brown recluse.
  76. Which arthropods are aquatic with 5 pairs of legs?
    The crustaceans are aquatic with 5 pairs of legs.
  77. Which phylum of animals secretes calcium carbonate from a mantle to form a shell, and possesses a radula for feeding?
    The mulluscs secrete calcium from a mantel to form a shell, and possess a radula for feeding.
  78. Name the three phyla of worms and give examples.
    The three phyla of worms are segmented worms like earthworms, the round worms like nematodes, and the flatworms like the hookworm.
  79. Which one of the worms grow by molting?
    Roundworms grow by molting.
  80. Which one of the three phyla of worms cause elephantiasis?
    Round worms, nematodes cause elephantiasis.
  81. The jellyfish, sea anemones and coral, all possessing stinging cells, come as a sessile "polyp" or a free floating "medusa." What is the name of this phylum?
    The Cnidara is the phylum of jellyfish, and corals all possessing stinging cells, come as a sessile "polyp" or a free floating "medusa"
  82. Which animal group lacks symmetry, have no specialized tissues or organs, and are filter feeder?
    The sponges lack any symmetry, have no specialized tissue or organs, and are filter feeders.
  83. How many people have been killed from the stings of box jellyfish, and what is the best treatment if stung?
    More than a hundred people have been killed by the box jellyfish. The only treatment is to pour vinegar on the sting. The vinegar will disable any cnidocytes that have not yet fired.

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