AP bio final

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daniellemarie
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190085
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AP bio final
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2012-12-18 17:49:25
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  1. what is the form of regulation wehre the end product slows the process
    negative feedback loop
  2. what is an example of a negative feedback loop
    • blood sugar (glucagon and insulin)
    • body temp (sweat)
  3. what is the form of regulation where the end product accelerates the process
    positive feedback loop
  4. what is an example of a positive feedback loop
    • oxytocin during pregnancy/ labor
    • global warmign
  5. how many variables should be tested in an experiment
    2
  6. what makes a good hypothesis
    if its testable
  7. what should be included in a hypothesis
    clearly show what variables are being tested
  8. what does it mean that water is a polar molecule
    • a water molecule has an uneven charge distributed
    • oxygen pulls more on the electrons shared in the molecule
  9. what happens to the pH of a solution if an acid is added to it
    pH decrease becoming more acidic
  10. what happens to the pH if the base is added
    increases becoming more basic
  11. what are the elements that make up living organisms
    • carbon
    • hydrogen
    • oxygen
    • nitrogen
    • phossphorus
    • sulfur
  12. how can there be great diversity of life when its all built on the same elements
    change parts around to created different size and shape because size and shape deteremine funciton so any variation creates diversity
  13. what is the difference between monomers and polymers
    monomers compose polymers which compose marcromolecules
  14. what are the polymers of carbs
    monosaccharides,glycogen
  15. what are the monomers of carbs
    fructose, glucose
  16. what are the polymers of nucleic acid
    DNA/RNA
  17. what are the monomers of nucleic acids
    nucleotides
  18. what are the polymers of lipids
    fats, wa, oils
  19. what are the monomers of lipids
    • fatty acid
    • glycerol
  20. what is the polymer of proteins
    amino acid
  21. what are the monomers of proteins
    collagen, enzymes
  22. what are the covalent bonds formed between amino acids via dehydration synthesis called
    pepetide bonds
  23. how are saturated fats different from unsaturated fats
    • saturated fats have a series of single bonds between carbohydrogen chain
    • unsaturated fats have one or more double bonds between carbon and hydrogen
  24. what is the seperation of a cell and its parts using a centrifuge at high speeds used to study individual cell parts called
    cell fractionation
  25. why is cell fractionation used
    to prepare cell components in bulk
  26. how are free ribosomes different from attached ribosomes
    • free ribiosomes are suspended in cytosol; make proteins for use in cell
    • attached ribosomes are attached to the ER to make proteins for export to other cells
  27. what organelle produces secretory proteins that help move materials within a cell
    rough er
  28. what organ needs the rough er
    pancreas
  29. what organelle functions in the synthesis of lipids; detoxification of poisions, stores calcium ions
    smooth er
  30. what cells need the smooth er
    muscle cells
  31. what organ needs the smooth er
    liver
  32. what organelle modifies proteins and carbs and ships out materials
    golgi apparatus
  33. what cells need the golgi apparatus
    body cells
  34. what organelle contains DNA and protins, controls chromosomes and is in the center
    nucleus
  35. what cells need the nucleus
    body cells; sex cells
  36. what organelle is used to enclose materials as they move throughout the cell
    transport vesicles
  37. what cells need transport vesicles
    hormones
  38. what organelles need transport vesicles
    • pancreas
    • liver
  39. what organelle removes hydrogen ions from substates and break down fatty acids and alcohol
    peroxisomes
  40. what cells need peroxisomes
    leaf cell
  41. what organ needs peroxisomes
    liver
  42. what organelle maintains cell shape and cell motility
    microtubules
  43. what cells need mircortubules
    body cells
  44. what organelle is the site of cellular respiration
    mitochondria
  45. what cells need mitochondria
    • nerve cells
    • muscle cells
  46. what organelle is the site of photosyntheis
    chloroplasts
  47. what is the pathway a protein would take from instructions to when it is secreted from the cell
    • DNA, RNA, ribosome, rough ER
    • or DNA, RNA, ribosome, golgi body, transport vesicle
  48. what organelles are essential for the produciton of glycoproteins
    rough er and golgi apparatus
  49. what type of molecules are moved through diffusion
    small, non-polar
  50. what type of molecules are moved through facilitated diffusion
    polar, large, or charged
  51. what type of molecules are moved through active transport
    • sodium
    • potassium
  52. what is the movement of molecules for diffusion, osmosis, and facilitated diffusion
    hight ot low
  53. what is the movement of molecules for active transport
    low to high
  54. what affect do anabolic reactions have on entropy
    decrease entropy by creating more complex structures
  55. what affect does hydrolysis have on entropy
    increases entropy by breaking things down
  56. what affect does respiration have on entropy
    increases entropy by increasing carbon dioxide and increasing heat by breaking down glucose
  57. what affect does digestion have on entropy
    increases entropy by breaking down molecules
  58. what affect do catabolic reactions have on entropy
    increases entropy by breaking down molecules
  59. what are the stages of the cell cycles
    • interphase
    • prophase
    • metaphase
    • anaphase
    • telophase
    • cytokinesis
  60. what occurs during interphase
    cell growth, DNA replication
  61. what occurs during prophase
    crossing over during meiosis; chromosomes become visible; nuclear membrane dissolves
  62. what occurs during metaphase
    chromosomes align in the middle
  63. what occurs during anaphase
    chromosomes are pulled apart and placed on opposite ends
  64. what occurs during telophase
    cell plate/ cleavage furrow forms; nuclear membrane reforms
  65. what is the failure of chromosomes to seperate during crossing over called
    nondisjunction
  66. when does nondisjunction take place
    prophase of meiosis one
  67. what is the movement of a substance down a gradience called
    diffusion
  68. what is the movement of molecules using helper proteins called
    facilitated diffusion
  69. what is the transport protein in the membrane that pushes sodium out and potassium in called
    sodium/potassium pump
  70. what is the movement of material moved into a cell called
    endocytosis
  71. what is the movment of materials out of a cell called
    exocytosis
  72. what is a cell termed as when the solute surrounding it is higher then the inside of it
    hypertonic
  73. what is a cell termed when there is more solute inside the cell then outside the cell
    hypotonic
  74. what types of moluecule pass easily across a cell membrane
    • small
    • no charge
    • non-polar
  75. what cell adaptations allow other moleucles to cross the cell membrane
    • active transport
    • protein channels
    • facilitated diffusion
    • co-transport
  76. what are lympocytes taht develop in bone marrow are are effector cells in immune response called
    b cells
  77. what digests pathogens
    lysozymes
  78. what functions in innate immunity as an antigen presenting cell
    macrophages
  79. what are molecules that swall up pathogens called
    phagocytes
  80. what are the white blood cells that kill tumor cells and viruses
    natural killer cells
  81. what catches all and attacks any foreign substance
    nonspecific defense
  82. what triggers the production of antibodies and active killer t cells
    helper t cells
  83. what cells kill infected cells and cancer cells
    cytotoxic t cells
  84. what is the short term protection that is activated when any foreign substance is detected called
    autoimmunity
  85. what is the long term protection; which on exposure
    immunological memory
  86. what shows the evolutionalry relationships across time and show the relatedness and extinction events
    evolutionary trees
  87. how does a species relatedness correspond to gene sequences of DNA
    the more specific sequence of DNA align, more close related the 2 species are
  88. how is genetic variatino related to evolution
    creates a deeper gene pool, increases odds of adaptations that increase survivor rates
  89. hwo does genetic variation arise
    through mutations, genetic drift; recombination during sexual reproduction
  90. what is the movement of a species into a population; a variation necessary for speaciation called
    immigration
  91. what is the movement out of a population that affects genetic variation called
    emigration
  92. what is it called when genes on one extreme are favored such as faster predators or prey survive more
    directional selection
  93. what is it called when favors average variation such as birth weight; not too big, not too small
    stabilizing selection
  94. what is the characteristic that enhances an organisms ability to survive to its environment
    adaptation
  95. what is the process where individuals with favored traits have higher survival probabilites called
    natural selection
  96. what conditions must be present to prevent natural selection from occuring?
    • random mating
    • no mutations of genes
    • no movement of genes in or out
    • small population size
  97. how is genetic variation related to natural selection
    increase in variation, increases the odds of a trait resulting in a competitve advantage
  98. what is the random change in gene frequency within a population called
    genetic drift
  99. what are the 2 types with exampls of genetic drift
    • bottle neck effect- cheatahs
    • founder effect- amish polydectylosism
  100. what is the addition or subtraction of genes in a population called
    gene flow
  101. what is an example of gene flow
    immigration/emmigration
  102. what is the sexual selection dictates which genes are favored in a population called
    non random mating
  103. what is the sudden, drastic change in environment greatly reducing the population size so that the new population shows a decrease in genetic variation
    bottleneck effect
  104. what is it called when the offspring are not viable or they have very low levels of fertility
    reduced hybrid fertility
  105. what is an example of reduced hybrid fertility
    mules
  106. what is it called when animals live in different areas so they don't cross paths to breed
    habitat isolation
  107. what is an example of habitat isolation
    lions vs. tigers
  108. what is it called when animals don't mate because the parts don't match up
    mechanical isolation
  109. what is an examples of mechanical isolation
    ostrich and hummingbird
  110. what is it called when there is an inability to mate due to egg and sperm fertilizing properly
    gametic isolation
  111. what is an examples of gametic isolation
    • diploid with tryploid organism
    • pollen and eggs
  112. what is it called when there is a failure to mate due to time differentiation
    temporal isolation
  113. what is an example of temporal isolation
    breed in early spring vs. late spring
  114. what is it called when the behavior of a species is specific so the organisms don't interbreed
    behavioral isolation
  115. what is an example of behavioral isolation
    spider dances
  116. which type of signal transmission involves the g protein on the cell membrane surfaces which receives the ligan and causes a change in shape and a single response
    g-protein coupled receptors
  117. what type of signal transmission involves a ligand that bonds to a gate, opens the channel, response follows, and the gate closes
    ligand-gated ion channels
  118. what type of signal transmission involves the ligan binding to monomers which leades to dimerzation and then phosphorylation and results in mutlipe responses
    receptor tyrosine kinases
  119. how is phosphorylaiton important in signal transmission
    binding of phosphates can signal cascades of events

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