When did Healthy People originate, by who, and why?
The Healthy People originated from the Surgeon Generals Report on Health, goal on improving health by 1990.
What was Healthy People 2000's goals and did they work?
National Health Promoton and Disease Prevention Objectives published in 1990, identified health improvement goals and objectives to be reached by the year 2000. No because the objectives were to broad.
What four areas did Healthy People 2010 concentrate on?
(1) attain high-quality, longer lives free of preventable disease, disability, injury, and premature death
(2) achieve health equity, eliminate disparities, and improve the health of all groups
(3) create social and physical environments that promote good health for all
(4) promote quality of life, healthy development, and healthy behaviors across all life stages
What does WHO Stand for and what does it mean?
The World Health Organization defines health as a "state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being, not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.
What are Health and Illness Models used for?
They are used to understand the relationships between concepts and client's attitudes.
What does the Health Belief Model address?
The relationship between a person's beliefs and behaviors.
What components make up the Healh Belief Model?
1.) Involves an indivdual's perception of susceptibility to an illness.
2.) Involves an individual's perception of the seriousness of the illness
3.) The likelihood that a person will take preventative action-results from a person's perception of the benefits of and barriers to taking action.
What was the Health Promotion Model designed for?
It was designed to be a complimentary counterpart to models of health protection. Health promotion is directed at increasing a patients level of well-being.
What area's does the Health Promotion Model focus on?
1.) individual characteristics and experiences
2.) behavior specific and effect
3.) behavioral outcomes
What model shows us the basic human need from most important to least important that humans need in there life?
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
What 5 area's does Maslow's Model focus on?
1.) Physiological Needs (Ex: Oxygen, Food, and Water)
2.) Safety and Security Needs (Ex: Physical safety)
3.) Social Needs (Ex: Love and Belonging Needs)
4.) Esteem Needs (Ex: Feel Good)
5.) Self-actualization Needs (Ex: Best you)
What does the Holistic Health Model try to attempt?
It attempts to create conditions that promote optimal health.
What 3 components does the Holistic Health Model focus on?
What does CAM stand for and what does it mean?
Complimentary and Alternative Medicine
A group of diverse medical and health care systems, practices, and products that are not presently considered to be part of conventional medicine.
What are the 5 internal variables?
1.) Developmental Stage: Person thought and behavior patterns change throughout life
2.) Intellectual Background: Person's beliefs about health are shaped in part by the person's knowledge
3.) Perception of Functioning: The way people percieve their physical functioning affects health beliefs and practices
4.) Emotional Factors: The patients degree of stress, depression, or fear can influence health beliefs and practices
5.) Spiritual Factors: How a person lives his or her life
What are the 3 internal variables?
1.) Family Practices: The way patients families use health care services generally affects their health practices
2.) Socioeconomic Factors: Social and psychosocial factors increase the risk for illness and influence the way that a person defines and reacts to illness
3.) Cultural Background: Influences beliefs, values, and customs
Give one example of Health Promotion, Wellness, and Illness Prevention.
1.) Routine Excercise
2.) Stress Reduction
What are the 3 levels of Preventative Care and what do they stand for?
1.) Primary Prevention: is true prevention: it precedes disease or dysfunction and is applied to patients considered physically and emotionally healthy.
2.) Secondary Prevention: focuses on individuals who are experiencing health problems or illness and are at risk for developing complcations or worsening conditions.
3.) Tertiary Prevention: occurs when a defect or disability is permanent and irreversible.
What is the definition of Risk Factors and some examples?
Variables that increase the vulnerability of an individual or group to an illness or accident.
Genetic and physiological factors
What is the definition for illness?
A state in which a person's physical, emotional, intellectual, social, developmental, or spiritual functioning is diminished or impaired.
What is Illness Behavior?
How people monitor their bodies, define and interpret their symptoms.
What is the differentces between acute and chronic ilness?
Acute- is usually reversible, has a short duration, and is often severe
Chronic-usually longer than 6 months, is irreversible, and affects funtioning in one or more systems
What are the 5 impact's of illness on the client and family?
1.) Behavioral and emotional changes
2.) Impact on body image
3.) Impact on self-concept
4.) Impact of family roles
5.) Impact on family Dynamics
A universal phenomenon that influences the way we think, feel, and behave is .
What is Leininger's Transcultural caring perspective?
1.) Caring is an essential huamn need
2.) Caring helps an individual or group improve a human condition.
3.) Caring helps to protect, develop, nurture, and sustain people.
What is Watson's Transpersonal Caring perspective?
1.) Promotes healing and wholeness
2.) Rejects the disease orientation to health care
3.) Places care before cure
4.) Emphasizes the nurse-client relationship
What are Patients Perception of Caring?
Clients value the affective dimension of nursing care.
1.) Reassuring presence
2.) Recognizing an individual as unique
3.) Keeping a close and attentive eye on the situation
What does the ethic of care depend on and what does it stand for?
Concerned with the relationship between the client and nurse and the attitude of each toward the other.
1.) Places the nurse as the client's advocate who solves ethical dilemmas by creating a relationship.
2.) Gives priority to each client as a unique being.
What are a couple of things taken into concideration when Caring in Nursing Practice?
1.) Behaviors include being present, providing a caring touch, and listening.
2.) Caring is a product of culture, values, experiences, and relationships with others.
A female client has just found a large lump in her breast. The physician needs to perform a breast biopsy. The nurse helps the client into the proper position and offers support during the biopsy. The nurse is demonstrating: A.) Enabling B.) Comforting C.) A sense of presence D.) Maintaining Belief
C.) A sense of presence
What are some exaples of presence while caring in nursing practice?
1.) Being with-Ex: Eye Contact
2.) Body language-Ex: Tone of Voice
3.) Listening-Ex: Positive and Encouraging attitude
What does touch provide and create?
Creates a connection
What does listening create and provide?
Opens lines of communication
Creates a mutual relationship
What are some kep points and aspects of knowing your patient?
The core process of clinical decision making
Aspects of knowing:
Responses to therapy, routine, and habits
Physical capacities and endurance
How is spiritual care achieved and what does it offer?
When a person can find a balance between their life values, goals, and belief symptoms and those of others.
Spiritually offers a sense of intersersonal and transpersonal connectedness.
What are some examples of family care?
People experience life through relationship with others
Caring does not occur in issolation from a clients family
Family is an integral resources
When a nurse enters a clients room and says "good morning" before starting care, the nurse combines nursing tasks and conversation. An important aspect for the nurse to remember is to: A.) Establish a relationship B.) Gather assessment data C.) Treat discomforts quickly D.) Assess the clients emotional needs
A.) Establish a relationship
What are the challenges of caring?
Improved nurse-to-client ratios
What does the Safety in health care settings reduce, prevent, improve, and increase?