ESCI 3201

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Author:
anime1003
ID:
190170
Filename:
ESCI 3201
Updated:
2012-12-19 14:07:53
Tags:
renewable energy
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Description:
final exam
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  1. diagram of BWR
  2. Pressurissed water reactor
  3. f forms radiation
    Material:  α (helium nucleus) and β (electron) particlesElectromagnetic: γ rays
  4. Half life equation
    N = N0 e–λt
  5. Fast Reactor
    • utilizes fast neutrons (> 1 Mev)
    • needs > 10% fissile material (Pu-239, U-233)
    • smaller in size; heat removal is challenging
  6. Thermal Reactor
    • utilizes slow or thermal neutrons (< 1 eV)
    • enrichment from 0.7% to 90% U-235
    • greater flexibility w.r.t. moderators, coolants, fuels
    • can be large or small in size
  7. components of thermal power reactor
    • fuel pellet
    • fuel rod
    • fuel assembly
    • core
    • moderator/coolent
    • shields
    • pressure vessle
  8. nuclear provides ______ to the US annually
    8 quads
  9. two primary concerns of fission
    • Heat removal after shutdown (due to alpha and beta release)
    • Handling of spent fuel after removal
  10. K factor
    K factor- describes effectivity of plant
  11. Most impottant fission product
    Xenon
  12. Critical reactivity
    K=1
  13. Fission energy: reduction of energy on resultant fission
    1/40 of electron volt
  14. 2 possible reaction after adding nuetrons
    • absorption capture
    • absorption fission
  15. 3 parts of Nuclear fission
    •  nuetrons are key
    • self sustaining fission chains
    • critial : steady rate of chain reaction, subcritical: decreasing reaction rate, supercritical: increasing reaction rate
  16. U-235 is the only natural fuel for _____ ractions
    thermal
  17. fission of U-235 releases about ________ per atom
    200 M eV
  18. Reactor power equation
    • P = Φ NT σf W
    • Where Φ = average neutron flux across core (neutrons/cm2-s)
    • NT = total fuel nuclei in core
    • σf = thermal cross section (cm2)
    • W = energy released per fission
  19. fuel loading chart
  20. equation for a window paralell to wall
    R0*Rp/(Ro+Rp)
  21. Ohms law
    V=iR
  22. R= 1/l
    thermal resistance per length, per unit area
  23. Q
    • Heat Flow 
    • W/m2
    • Btu/ Hr-ft2
  24. K, A, dt, dx, R (group prject)
    • conductance
    • area
    • change in temperature
    • distance through material
    • r*l, thermal resistance
  25. K0, Kp
    • 0.096 BTu/hr-ft
    • 0.065
  26. Ro, R, Rp
    • L0/(K0*A)
    • dx/(K*A)
    • Lp(Kp*A)
  27. 3 types hydro energy
    • Impoundment- potential energy
    • Run-off river- kinetic energy, 1/2m(V2-v2)
    • Pumped hydro-
  28. Impoundemnt systems are dependant on ____
    Carno efficiency cycle
  29. Power available from 1 cubic meter of waterfalling through 1 meter every second:
    • P = Energy per unit of Time
    • = mgh
    • = 1000 kg X 9.8 m/s2 X 1 m/ 1 s
    • = 9800 Joules/s
    • = 9800 W
    • = 9.8 kW
  30. Z in Hydro
    Head height
  31. PE hydro
    PE=mgh=PE/m3= ρgZ
  32. Power generated in Hydro
    Power = Potential Energy X Volume/(Time X Efficiency)

    PowerPE = PE X Flowrate X Eff
  33. Penstock
    • Penstock-moves water from reservoir to turbine (pipes)
    • Radial in, axial out
    • Runner
    • scroll case
  34. Runner, scroll case
  35. tailrace
    flow after the dam
  36. forebay
    flow before the dam
  37. AC
    alternating current, 3 phases
  38. DC
    direct current, converter station
  39. WInd energy basics
    • Solar Driven
    • High variability, poorly correlated to loads
    • Non-dispatchable
    • No economic storage of wind energy
    • Power proportional to cube of wind speed
  40. Wind energy equation
    P(v) = ½ρAv3

    • P(v) = power, in watts
    • A = area perpendicular to flow, in m2
    • ρ = density of fluid, in kg/m3  
    • v = velocity of fluid, in m/s
  41. wind speed generally ______ wit height
    increases
  42. ρair value
    1.226 kg/m3 at 15 °C (288°K) and 1 atmosphere
  43. warm air _____ available power by_____
    reduces, 6%
  44. Cold air ______ power by ______
    increases, 24%
  45. Ideal Gas law
    Pv=nRT
  46. Average power of wind
    (v3)avg
  47. Turbines have _____ blades
    2-3 blades
  48. Lift
    • Pocket of low pressure on downwind side
    • Pocket pulls blade toward it
  49. Lift is up to ______ than drag
    10X's stronger
  50. Yaw control
    keep blades perpendicular to wind
  51. cut-in
    Wind speed at which usable power produced
  52. Cut-out
    Wind speed at which unit brakes
  53. Rated
    Minimum speed to produce rated power
  54. A 3 MW turbine requires the following non-renewable resources:
    • 335 tons of steel
    • 4.7 tons of Cu
    • 3 tons of Al
    • 2 tons of rare earth elements
  55. For turbines in a line perpendicular to prevailing winds: spacing of wind towers
    Towers usually spaced 3 to 5 rotor diameters
  56. For turbines in-line with prevailing winds: spacing
    Towers usually spaced 5 to 9 rotor diameters
  57. Nth row eficiency equation for wind turbines
    • F≈e -2N/R2
    • Where R = x/D
    • D = rotor diameter
  58. Baseload fleet
    minimum generation limits
  59. reserve requirements
    potential increase in wind generation
  60. baseloading requiremnets
    at a time when baseload unit regulation will be needed more than ever
  61. ramping
    wind ramping up and considered must-take while load is ramping down

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