Chemistry Review

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Author:
KaZuma_t3
ID:
190176
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Chemistry Review
Updated:
2012-12-19 02:17:29
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Chemistry
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Description:
Grade 10 Chemisttry
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  1. a substance that contains only one kind of particle
    pure substance 
    element
    compound
    pure substance
  2. example of pue substances
    • ware
    • glucose
    • oxygen
  3. a pure substance that connot be broken down into a simpler substance
    pure substance 
    element
    compound
    element
  4. examples of elements
    • oxygen
    • hydrogen
    • carbon
  5. a pure substance that contains two or more different elements in a fixed proportion
    pure substance
    element
    compound
    compound
  6. examples of compounds
    • CO2
    • NaCl
  7. the smallest part of an element, contains protons, neutrons and electrons
    atom
    diatomic molecule
    physical change
    atom
  8. the following elements H, O, F, Br, I, Cl like to ge found bonded together as a molecule when they are by themselves
    atom
    diatomic molecule
    physical change
    diatomic molecule
  9. a chang ein the size or form of substance that can by used to identify it
    • atom
    • diatomic molecule
    • physical change
  10. the alteration of a substance into one or more different substances with different properties, also called a chemical reaction
    chemical change
    chemical property
    subatomic particle
    chemical change
  11. the characteristic behavior that occurs when a substance interacts with another to become a new substance
    chemical change
    chemical property
    subatomic particle
    chemical property
  12. make up the atom
    chemical change
    chemical property
    subatomic particles
    subatomic partcles
  13. the rule for an atom to have a full outer shell
    chemical property
    subatomic property
    2, 8, 8,
    2, 8, 8,
  14. what does the group number on the periodic table let you know about the structure of the atom
    it lets you know how many valence electrons it has
  15. what does the period number tell you about the structure of the atom
    the period number tells you how many outer shells the atom has
  16. briefly describe the characteristic of each of the groups of the periodic table
    alkali metals
    alkaline earth metals
    chalcogens
    halogens
    nobles gases
    • alkali-needs to lose 1 electron, reactive with water
    • alkaline-needs to lose 2 electrons, reactive but not as alkali
    • chalcogens-needs to gain 2 electrons, non-metals
    • halogens-needs to gain 1 electron,very reactive 
    • noble gases-already have a full shell, not reactive
  17. a postively or negatively charged atom
    ion
    cation
    anion
    ion
  18. a postively charged metal atom that has lost electrons
    ion
    cation
    anion
    cation
  19. a negatively charged non-metal atom atom that has gained electrons
    ion
    cation
    anion
    anion
  20. the strong attraction that occers between a metal cation and a non-metal anion of equal and opposing charges
    molecular bond
    ionic bond 
    ion
    ionic bond
  21. how is an ionic bond formed
    an ionic bond is formed when there is a transfer of electrons between metal and non-metal atoms
  22. using the 2, 8, 8, rule how many valence electrons would these elements have:
    hydrgen
    carbon
    argon
    magnesium
    • H+ or H-
    • C4+ or C4-
    • Ar
    • Mg2+
  23. it is said that atoms become ions because they are trying to be stable by resembling their closest noble gase, which noble gas do the following ions resembl
    Li
    Br
    S2-
    • Helium
    • Krypton
    • Argon
  24. how do you name ionic compounds
    first element stays the second element changes the ending to ide but keeps the base
  25. how to name molecular compounds
    first word changes the beginning only if theres more than 2 and the second changes the beginning if there's 1 or more
  26. what is the difference between binary and ternary acids
    binary acids are composed of hydrogen and a non-metal, while ternary acids are composed of hydrogen, oxygen, and another element
  27. state the law of conservation of mass
    atoms cannot create or destroy during a chemical reaction, therefore, there are the same number of atoms on the reactant side as the product side
  28. how does the law of conservation of mass explain why we must balance chemical reactions
    we must balance them because there has to be the same amount of chemicals on the reactant side and the product side, we balance it by adding coefficients
  29. what are:
    reactants
    products
    coeffefficients
    subscripts
    • reactants are what is making the chemical reaction
    • products is what you get after the chemical reaction
    • coefficients are added to the beginning of chemicals to balance equations
    • subscripts is how many of the elements are in the compound
  30. what are the 5 types of reactions
    • single displacement
    • double displacement
    • synthesis
    • decomposition
    • combustion
  31. how do you know if a chemical equation is a single displacement reaction
    when a reactant switches to another reactant
  32. how do you know if a chemical equation is double displacement
    when 2 reactants switch partners
  33. how do you know if a chemical equation is synthesis
    when 2 or more reactants produce one product
  34. how do you know if a chemical equation is docomposition
    when 1 reactant produces many products
  35. how do you know if a chemical equation is combustion
    when the product is carbon dioxide and water
  36. what type of ions are always present in an acid
    H+ hydrogen ions
  37. what type of ions are always found in bases
    OH- hydroxide atom
  38. 3 differences between acids and bases
    • acids-sour, ph of 1-6, watery feel
    • bases-bitter, slippery feel, ph of 8-14

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