CCNA Wide are networks

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CCNA Wide are networks
2014-09-12 21:41:14
CCNA Chapter 16

CCNA wide area networks
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  1. What it CPE (Customer Premise Equipment)?
    It is equipment that is typically owned by the subscriber and located on the subscriber's premises.
  2. In a WAN what is the Local Loop?
    it connects the demarc to the closest switching office, which is called the central office.
  3. What the bandwidth of a DS0 ( digital signal 0)?
    64Kbps, DS0 is the basic digital signaling rate of 64Kbps, equivalent to one channel. Europe uses the E0.
  4. What is the bandwidth of a T1 line?
    1.544Mbps, this is a DS1 and contains 24 DS0s.
  5. What is the bandwidth of an E1 line?
    2.048Mbps, contains 30 DS0s.
  6. What is the bandwidth of a T3 line?
    44.73Mbps, also called a DS3. Contains 30 DS0s.
  7. What is the bandwidth of an OC-3 line?
    155Mbps, Optical carrier (OC) 3 is a fiberoptic line made up of 3 DS3s.
  8. What is the bandwidth of an OC-12 line?
    622Mbps, OC-12 is made up of 4 OC-3s bundled together.
  9. What is the bandwidth of an OC-48 line?
    2,488Mbps, made up of 4 OC-12 lines.
  10. What is ISDN?
    Integrated Services Digital Network, is a service that is transmited over existing phone lines. 
  11. What is HDLC?
    High-Level Data-link controle,
  12. What is PPP?
    Point-to-Point Protocol, has features like authentication, encryption, and compression. 
  13. What is PPPoE?
    • Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet, It is a protocol to run PPP over ethernet offering the features of PPP. 
    • Downside of smaller MTUs.
  14. What is Symmetrical DSL?
    It is DSL (Digital Subscriber Line) with equal up stream and downstream bandwidth.
  15. What is Asymmetrical DSL?
    It is when DSL (Digital Subscriber Line) has a higher bandwidth on one direction. Downstream is always faster.
  16. What is Cisco's default serial encapsulation method?
    • HDLC (High-Level Data-Link Controle protocol) 
    • It is Cisco proprietary so if not all the routers are Cisco then you will have to use PPP. (Point-to-Point Protocol)
  17. What is the PPP stack and how does it corrospond to the OSI model?
  18. What does HDLC, LCP, and NCP do in PPP?
    • HDLC: a method for encapsulating datagrams over serial links.
    • LCP: a method of establishing, configuring, maintaining, and terminating the point-to-point connection.
    • NCP: a method of establishing and configuring different network layer protocols for transport across the PPP link.
  19. With PPP what are the 3 phases of session establishment?
    • Link establishment
    • Authentication phase (Optional)
    • Network layer protocol phase
  20. What does PPP use for authentication?
    PAP and CHAP
  21. PPP session establishment- establishment phase?
    LCP pacekets are sent by each PPP device to configure and test the link. 
  22. PPP session establishment-  Authentication phase?
    If required, either CHAP or PAP can be used to authenticate a link.
  23. PPP session establishement- Network layer protocol phase?
    PPP uses NCP to allow multiple network layer protocols to be encapsulated and sent over a ppp data link. Each network layer protocol establishes a service with NCP.
  24. With PPP what is the PAP authentication method?
    • Password Authentication Protocol (PAP)
    • It is the less secure than CHAP. PAP sends user-name and password in clear text during authentication.
  25. With PPP what is the CHAP authentication method?
    • Challenge Handshake Authenticaiton Protocol (CHAP)
    • Durring link establishment phase the local router requests to the remote device to send an one-way hash function called an MD5.
  26. How do you configure PPP on a Cisco router?
    • Router#config t
    • Router(config)#int s0
    • Router(config)#encapsulation ppp
  27. Where do you turn PPP encapsulation on at?
    PPP is set at the interface configuration NOT at the global configurtation.
  28. Frame Relay is classified as a (NMBA) network. What is (NMBA)?
    non-broadcast multi-access, it does not send broadcasts such as RIP updates across the network.
  29. What is a Frame Relay (CIR)?
    Committed Information Rate (CIR). It is the maximum bandwidth of data guaranteed to be delivered. 
  30. In Frame Relay what is the Access Rate?
    It is the maximum speed at which the Frame Relay interface can transmit. But this is not guaranteed like CIR.
  31. What are the 2 encapsulation types for Frame Relay?
    Cisco and IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force).
  32. What are the 2 types of circuts on Frame Relay?
    Permanent virtual circuits (PVC) and Switched Virtual Circuits (SVC).
  33. What does Frame Realy PVCs use to identify its self to the DTE?
    Data Link Connection Identifiers (DLCIs).
  34. What does Inverse ARP (IARP) do in Fram Relay?
    IARP maps a DLCI to an IP address. like a MAC addresss to an IP address.
  35. Are DLCIs locally or globally significant in Fram Relay?
    DLCIs are locally significant.
  36. Who typically assigns the Frame Relay DLCI and what number do they start at?
    The service provider typically assigns the DLCI and they start at 16.
  37. What is DE when dealing with Frame Relay CIR?
    When using Frame Relay you transmit at a faster rate than you CIR (Committed Information Rate) all the packets that are above it are mared as DE (Discard Eligibility). The frame will be discared if it runs into congestion.