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What is etiquette?
the conduct or procedure required by good breeding or prescribed by authority to be observed in social or official life
What is hunger?
- a : a craving or urgent need for food or a specific nutrient
- b : an uneasy sensation occasioned by the lack of food
- c : a weakened condition brought about by prolonged lack of food
What is eating?
placing nourishment in your body for consumption
What is an appetite?
an inherent craving
What is flatware?
relatively flat tableware; especially : eating and serving utensils (as knives, forks, and spoons)
What is stemware?
glass hollowware mounted on a stem
What is china?
earthenware or porcelain tableware (usually used for special occasions)
What is a place setting?
a set of dishes and flatware constituting a table service for one person
What are good manners?
habitual conduct or deportment; being polite, using proper etiquette, following rules of cleanliness
What is cuisine?
manner of preparing food : style of cooking; also : the food prepared
What is culture?
the integrated pattern of human knowledge, belief, and behavior that depends upon the capacity for learning and transmitting knowledge to succeeding generations--(there are many definitions)
What is a pastry blender?
Tool used to blend flour, water, etc. to make pastry dough- We use it for egg salad at home!
What is a rubber scraper?
Used for serving soup, stew, etc.
- Used to drain items such as noodles, rinse off grapes, etc.
- Used for peeling apples, potatoes, etc.
- A large, heavy cooking pot with a lid.
Used for stovetop cooking; frying an egg, making a grilled cheese
tool used to chop foods
Type of serving style where people serve themselves (no waiters/waitresses) like Wood Grill
Hand Mixer is used to mix items, has 2 beaters to stir ingredients
Used to add liquids during baking, roasting process
used to more efficiently (than a paring knife) peel food with skin like carrots, potatoes, cucumbers
allows air to be added to flour, baking soda, etc.
Used to whip or beat eggs, batter, etc.
Family style restaurants are a type of casual dining restaurants where food is often served on platters and the diners serve themselves (larger portions and people share with each other)
low price meal, usually changing daily
the yellowish most fatty part of the milk OR to whip something into a frothy substance (like cream butter and sugar for cookies)
to cut or chop into very small pieces
to reduce to small particles by rubbing on something rough (like grating cheese on a grater)
to remove a core; like from an apple or pineapple
Style of slicing into extremely thin strips; carrots, leeks, etc.
to fry in a small amount of fat
- any of a genus (Salmonella) of usually
- motile enterobacteria that are pathogenic for humans and other warm-blooded animals and cause food poisoning, gastrointestinal inflammation, typhoid fever, or septicemia
an acute disease caused by botulinum toxin especially in food
Staphylococcus aureus (Staph) a common bacterium found on the skin and in the noses of up to 25% of healthy people and animals. Usually it causes no illness in these healthy people unless it is transmitted to food products. Staphylococcus aureus is important because it has the ability to make several types of toxins, many of which are responsible for food poisoning.
infestation with or disease caused by trichinae and marked especially by muscular pain, dyspnea, fever, weakness, and edema
Temperature Danger Zone
Bacteria won't multiply in the colder temperatures of a refrigerator or freezer, or at temperatures hotter than 141°F. Where they thrive is between 41°F and 140°F, a region known as the "Food Temperature Danger Zone."
6 Fruit Classifications
- 1. Berries (duh??)
- 2. Pits (cherries, peaches, plums)
- 3. Cores (apples, pears)
- 4. Melons (watermelon)
- 5. Citrus Fruits (oranges, lemons)
- 6. Tropical Fruits (papaya, mango)
Browning is the process of becoming brown, especially referring to food. Browning foods may be desirable, as in caramelization, or undesirable, as in an apple turning brown after being cut.
8 Vegetable Classification
- 1. Bulbs (Onion, Garlic)
- 2. Flowers (Cauliflower, Broccoli)
- 3. Fruits (eggplant, tomato)
- 4. Fungi (mushrooms-button, shitake)
- 5. Leaves (cabbage, lettuce)
- 6. Roots (carrots, turnip)
- 7. Seeds (peas, corn)
- 8. Stems (celery)
- 9. Tubers (potatos)
6 Basic Nutrients and Functions
- Carbohydrates are a major energy source. Along with providing fuel for physical activity, they also power the body's involuntary functions, including heartbeat, breathing and digestive processes.
- Proteins help skin, muscle and bones which depend on dietary protein for normal growth, development and maintenance. Getting enough protein is rarely a problem in industrialized countries such as the U.S. Complete proteins from animal sources contain all the amino acids your body needs for normal functioning.
- Lipids You may think of lipids, or fats, as dietary enemies, but they are as necessary to the body's normal functioning as the other essential nutrients. Dietary fat helps the absorption of vitamins, supports cell membrane health and helps maintain the immune system.
- Vitamins are micronutrients, meaning the body needs them in small quantities. Vitamins are organic compounds produced by living beings, while minerals are inorganic elements that originate in the earth.
1 gram fat=?
1 gram protein=?
1 gram carb=?
- 1 gram fat = 9 calories
- 1 gram protein=4 calories
- 1 gram carbohydrates= 4 calories
sugar, starch, fiber
3 basic carbohydrates
- Any of the various amino acids having the amino group
- in the alpha position that are the chief components of proteins and are synthesized by living cells or are obtained as essential components of the diet
a steroid alcohol that is present in animal cells and body fluids, regulates membrane fluidity, and functions as a precursor molecule in various metabolic pathways and as a constituent of LDL; may cause atherosclerosis (not good)
Vitamin D-helps boost immune system, go outside and absorb naturally from the sun
solidification of the blood, a process called coagulation or clotting.
have trouble seeing in poor light or at night (maybe grandma!)
Anemia is a condition in which the body does not have enough healthy red blood cells.
Osteoporosis is a disease that thins and weakens the bones to the point that they become fragile and break easily
Rickets is a disorder caused by a lack of vitamin D, calcium, or phosphate
Scurvy is a disease resulting from a deficiency of vitamin C (ascorbic acid)
Fat Soluble Vitamins
The fat soluble vitamins are soluble in lipids (fats). These vitamins are usually absorbed in fat globules (called chylomicrons) that travel through the lymphatic system of the small intestines and into the general blood circulation within the body. These fat soluble vitamins, especially vitamins A and E, are then stored in body tissues.
Water Soluble Vitamins
water soluble (vitamins B and C).
Folate is a water-soluble B vitamin that occurs naturally in food. (Also called Folic Acid)
Macro minerals include familiar names like calcium, potassium, sodium and magnesium, all of which you need in large dosages. Macro minerals are key to the success of almost every aspect of your health.
Your body needs many different kinds of minerals to stay healthy. It needs trace minerals, which are so called because you only need a small amount
Pernicious anemia is a decrease in red blood cells that occurs when your intestines cannot properly absorb vitamin B12
Hypertension is the term used to describe high blood pressure. Blood pressure is a measurement of the force against the walls of your arteries as your heart pumps blood through your body. (Again, not good!)
Diabetes is usually a lifelong (chronic) disease in which there are high levels of sugar in the blood.
The main function of phosphorus is in the formation of bones and teeth. It plays an important role in the body's utilization of carbohydrates and fats and in the synthesis of protein for the growth, maintenance, and repair of cells and tissues.
Calcium is one of the most important minerals for the the human body. Calcium helps form and maintain healthy teeth and bones. Proper levels of calcium over a lifetime can help prevent osteoporosis.
The body uses sodium to control blood pressure and blood volume. Sodium is also needed for your muscles and nerves to work properly. Most common form is sodium chloride which is table salt
Fluoride occurs naturally in the body as calcium fluoride. Calcium fluoride is mostly found in the bones and teeth. Small amounts of fluoride help reduce tooth decay. Adding fluoride to tap water (called fluoridation) helps reduce cavities in children by more than half. Fluorides also help maintain bone structure.
Basic parts of digestive system
- Mouth: Foodstuffs are broken down mechanically by
- chewing and saliva is added as a lubricant. In some species, saliva contains amylase, an enzyme that digests starch. Esophagus: A simple conduit between the mouth and stomach - clearly important but only marginally interesting compared to other regions of the tube. Stomach: Where the real action begins - enzymatic digestion of proteins initiated and foodstuffs reduced to liquid form. Liver: The center of metabolic activity in the body - its major role in the digestive process is to provide bile salts to the small intestine, which are critical for digestion and absorption of fats. Pancreas: Important roles as both an endocrine and exocrine organ - provides a potent mixture of digestive enzymes to the small intestine which are critical for digestion of fats, carbohydrates and protein. Small Intestine: The most exciting place to be in the entire digestive system - this is where the final stages of chemical enzymatic digestion occur and where almost almost all nutrients are absorbed.Large Intestine: Major differences among species in extent and importance - in all animals water is absorbed, bacterial fermentation takes place and feces are formed. In carnivores, that's about the extent of it, but in herbivores like the horse, the large intestine is huge and of critical importance for utilization of cellulose.
3500 calories= ??
- Hardening of the arteries, also called atherosclerosis, is a
- common disorder. It occurs when fat, cholesterol, and other substances build up in the walls of arteries and form hard structures called plaques (bad!!!)
A swelling of the thyroid gland, which can lead to a swelling of the neck or larynx (voice box).
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