Who saw Congress, the legislative branch, as the most basic part of a democratic, constitutional government?
What is a democracy in which the representatives of the people are responsible for the day-to-day work of government called?
What is the legislative branch of the National Government called?
Who called Congress "the first branch" of the National Government?
Who leads the Democratic Party in the Senate?
Tom Daschle, South Dakota
Who leads the Republican Party in the Senate?
Trent Lott, Mississippi
What is a legislature made up of two houses called?
What government had consisted of two houses since the 1300s and was the example that America used to create its own government?
In 1787, what two states of the original thirteen colonies were the only ones who had unicameral legislatures?
Georgia (became bicameral in 1789)
Today, what is the only state that has a unicameral legislature?
In 1787, the Framers had to create a two-chambered body to settle the conflict between what plans in which the most populous States wanted to distribute seats in Congress in proportion to the population of each State, while smaller States demanded an equal voice in Congress?
Where was the meeting held?
Virginia and New Jersey Plans
After returning from France, who told George Washington that he was opposed to a two-chambered legislature?
What State has the least population, with 500,000 residents?
What State has the largest population, with 34 million residents?
Each _____ of Congress lasts for two years, and each _____ is numbered consecutively.
Congress began its first term on what date?
March 4, 1789
In 1933, what amendment changed the date for the start of each new term in Congress?
What is the start date of a new term in Congress?
noon of the 3rd day in January of every odd-numbered year
What is the period of time during whichi, each year, Congress assembles and conducts business called?
What is the legislative body of Costa Rica called?
4 year term
What is the legislative body of France called?
What are the bicameral houses of France called?
National Assembly (577 members, 5 year term)
Senate (321 members, 9 year term)
What is the legislative body of Israel called?
4 year term
What is the legislative body of Japan called?
What are the bicameral houses of Japan called?
House of Councillors (252 members, 6 year term)
House of Representatives (500 members, 4 year term)
What is the legislative body of Saudi Arabia called?
4 year term
What is suspending until the next session called?
A typical session in Congress only lasted 4 or 5 months until what war?
World War II
What phrase means finally, and ends a session of Congress?
What term means adjourn?
What is a meeting to deal with some emergency situation called?
How many special sessions of Congress have been held?
What President called the most recent special session of Congress in 1948 to consider the anti-inflation and welfare measures in the aftermath of World War II?
How many times has the Senate been called into special session alone, to consider treaties or presidential appointments? (not since 1933)
What is a special-purpose map used to present statistics geographically called?
What is the exact size of the House of Representatives?
What word means distributed and relates to how the seats in the House of Representatives are distributed among the States?
What 7 States only have one representative apiece in the House of Representatives?
What territories each elect a delegate to represent them in the House?
District of Columbia
What country elects a resident commissioner to represent it in the House?
What word means redistribute?
How often must Congress reapportion the seats in the House, according to Article I of the Constitution?
After each decennial census
How many seats did the House have in the First and Second Congresses?
In 1792, Congress increased the number of House seats to what number?
Faced with the 1930 census, Congress avoided repeating its earlier lapse by passing what law, that set up what is often called an "automatic reapportionment"?
Reapportionment Act of 1929
Today, each of the 435 seats in the House represents an average of how many persons?
Since 1872, Congress has required that congressional elections are held on what day?
the Tuesday following the first Monday in November of each even-numbered year
What state is allowed to hold its congressional election in October?
What are the congressional elections that occur in the nonpresidential years - that is, between presidential elections - called?
Why did President Nixon resign in 1974?
What Republican was elected in 1968, and then reelected in 1972?
Who replaced Richard Nixon after he resigned in 1974?
What Democrat was elected in 1976?
What Republican was elected in 1980, and then reelected in 1984?
What Republican was elected in 1988?
What Democrat was elected in 1992, and then reelected in 1996?
In what arrangement do the voters in each district elect one of the State's representatives from among a field of candidates running for a seat in the House from that district?
single-member district arrangement
What is it called when seats are elected from the State as a whole, rather than from a particular district?
What is the term that means that each congressional district must be all one piece?
What is the term that means that each congressional district must be a comparatively small area?
In 1932, the Supreme Court held that the requirements of contiguity, population, equality, and compactness relating to drawing congressional districts were repealed in what case?
Wood v. Broom
What is it called when districts are drawn to the advantage of the political party that controls the State's legislature?
In 1964, the Court held that the 14th Amendment's Equal Protection Clause commands that the seats in both houses of a State's legislature must be apportioned on the basis of population equality in what Supreme Court case?
Reynolds v. Sims
Gerrymandering takes its name from what Governor of Massachusetts, who in 1812 drew the State's legislative districts to favor the Democratic-Republicans?
What painter added a head, wings, and claws on a district map hanging over the desk of a Federalist newspaper editor?
In what Supreme Court case of 1964 did the Court hold that the population differences among Georgia's congressional districts were so great as to violate the Constitution?
Wesberry v. Sanders
The fact that gerrymandering based solely on race is a violation of the 15th Amendment is because of what 1960 Supreme Court case?
Gomillion v. Lightfoot
What is the most notable case that the Supreme Court struck down as a race-based district? (Texas, 1996)
Bush v. Vera
In what 2001 Supreme Court case from North Carolina did the Court hold that while race cannot be the controlling factor in drawing district lines, race can be on of the mix of factors that shape the process?
Hunt v. Cromartie
How old must a member of the House be, according to the Constitution?
25 years old
How long must a member of the House be a citizen of the United States, according to the Constitution?
at least 7 years
In 1900, the House refused to seat what Utah man because he was a polygamist?
Brigham H. Roberts
In what 1969 Supreme Court case did the Court hold that the House could not exclude a member-elect who meets the Constitution's standards of age, citizenship, and residence?
Powell v. McCormack
In 1980, what Democrat from Pennsylvania was expelled from the House for corruption. He had been caught up in the Abscam probe, an undercover FBI investigation of corruption.
In 1990, the House voted to reprimand what Democrat from Massachusetts for conduct stemming from his relationship with a male prostitute?
In 1989, what Democrat from Texas resigned his seat after the House Ethics Committee charged him with a number of violations of House rules? Most of these allegations were centered around his financial dealings with individuals and companies with an interest in legislation before the House.
What 1993 Supreme Court case rejected North Carolina's 12th (160 miles long) "majority-minority" congressional district?
Shaw v. Reno
What is the Senate often called?
the "upper house"
How many members does the United States Senate have?
How long are the terms in the United States Senate?
How many members did the Senate have when it held its first session in March of 1789?
How many members did the Senate have by the end of the First Congress in 1791?
What Republican from Mississippi was one of the first two African-Americans to serve in the Senate, serving one term from 1875 to 1881?
Blanche K. Bruce
By the late 1800s, what was the nickname of the Senate, because so many wealthy party and business leaders sat in the chamber?
What amendment declares that all persons whom the State allows to vote for members of "the most numerous Branch" of its legislature are qualified to vote for candidates for the United States Senate?
What Republican from South Carolina holds the all-time record for being reelected to the Senate? (9 times, nearly 50 years)
What term means that all of the seats of the Senate are never up for election at the same time?
What term means the people and interests the senators represent?
What term means coworkers?
How old must a senator be?
at least 30 years old
How long must a senator be a citizen of the United States?
at least 9 years
What senator from Tennessee was expelled in 1797 for conspiring to lead two Native American tribes, supported by British warships, in attacks on Spanish Florida and Louisiana?
The 14 senators ousted in 1861 and 1862 during the Civil War were all from what states? They were expelled for supporting secession.
States of the Confederacy
What Republican senator from Oregon was recommended to be expelled from the Senate by the Ethics Committee beacause of several episodes of sexual harassment and other personal misconduct?
What Republican senator from Kentucky, who was the Ethics Committee's chairman, noted that lengthy committee investigations had shown "a habitual pattern of aggressive, blatantly sexual advances"? (with regard to Bob Packwood)
In 1990, what Republican senator from Minnesota was formally denounced? The Ethic Committee had found him guilty on several counts of financial misconduct.
What is the median age of the members of the House?
54 years old
What is the median age of the members of the Senate?
60 years old
How many women are members of the House?
How many women are members of the Senate?
Who is the only African-American Republican in Congress?
Representative J.C. Watts, Oklahoma
What Democrat from Oregon is the first-ever Chinese American member of the House?
What Republican from Colorado was the Senate's first full-blooded Native American member?
Ben Nighthorse Campbell
What kind of lawmaker believes that each question they face must be decided on its merits?
What kind of lawmaker sees themselves as the agents of those who elected them?
What kind of lawmaker owes their first allegiance to their political party?
What kind of lawmaker attempts to combine the basic elements of the trustee, delegate, and partisan roles?
What vital part of committee work is the process by which Congress, through its committees, checks to see that the various agencies in the executive branch are working effectively and acting in line with the policies that Congress has set by law?
What Republican senator began his career at the State level, and was later elected to the Senate. His father was governor of Wyoming and a U.S. Senator.
What Republican from Florida must balance several different roles like publicizing important issues, meeting with constituents, and working with her fellow lawmakers in Washington?
Representative Ileana Ros-Lehtinen
What amendment modified the pay-setting authority of the Constitution?
What is the term for speaking fees and similar payments from private sources, mainly special interest groups?
What is a well-known benefit that allows members to mail letters and other materials postage-free by substituting their facsimile signature (frank) for the postage?
What is an angry backlash by constituents at the the ballot box called?
In what 1979 Supreme Court case did the Court hold that members of Congress may be sued for libel for statements they make in news releases or newsletters?
Hutchinson v. Proxmire
What 1881 Supreme Court case is the leading case holding that the immunity applies "to things generally done in a session of the House (or Senate) by one of its members in relation to the business before it"?
Kilbourn v. Thompson
What is Article I, Section 6 of the Constitution known as? It provies that senators and representatives "shall not be questioned in any other place" over "any speech or debate in either House". This means that they cannot be sued for anything they say in their legislative chambers.
Speech or Debate Clause
What senator of Wisconsin invented the "Golden Fleece of the Month Award" to publicize what he saw as examples of wasterful government spending?
What did Senator William Proxmire of Wisconsin invent that publicized what he saw as examples of wasteful government spending?
Golden Fleece of the Month Award
In 1975, William Proxmire gave awards to various federal agencies for spending almost half a million dollars to fund what professor's research on emotional behavior?
William Proxmire's remarks were published in what document in a press release and in various newsletters?