The study of the effect mood states (anxiety, depression) have and stress have on the immune system.
Depression down-regulates the body's immune system
Psychobiological basis for stress's effect on the immune system
Hypothalamus&pituitary glands secrete hormones in response to stress (physical or psychological) --> adrenal gland by kidneys --> cortisol --> immunosuppressive actions
Integration & interplay between biology, psychology, and sociology.
Allows MD to view patient's life from multiple perspective simultaneously.
Rat pups that are licked are more resiliant to stress, pass on this resiliance to offspring.
Example of biopsychosocial model.
Example of biopsychosocial phenom
Doesn't account for counfounding variables with respect to health like psychology and sociology
Viewing symptoms along with context in which they appear for dx
Mourning v. depression: based on context & appropriateness
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
Diagnoses are based on descriptions (empirical and categorical)
Etiology is rarely part of the diagnostic cirteria
5 axes of the DSM-IV
Asix I: Major psychopathology- depression, bipolar disorder
Axis II: Personality disorders- Antisocial etc.
Axis III: Medical conditions: side effects of drugs given for medical conditions
Axis V: Global Assessment of Functioning (10-100)
Candidate v fate genes
Fate: genetical predisposition
Cadidate: may undergo epigenetics changes --> manifest as psychopathology
Important in psychogenomics
Allows for visualization of the biological impact psych intervention can have on the brain
fMRI: changes in blood flow or cell metabolites to show change in activity
Suicide - no ? leading COD?
Suicide is the 8th leading COD
No. 1 cause of diability worldwide
Major depressive disorder
Lifestyle & personal habits account for __% of illness/death and __% of healthcare costs
What is mental health?
Successful performance of mental fxn --> productive activities, fulfilling relationships, the ability to adapt to change & cope with adversity
4 ways to define normal/abnormal/pathological
1. Professionally: common in all cultures
2. Deviation from mean: numerical
3. Assessment of function: do thoughts, feeling, and/or behavior have a functional or dysfunctional effect on the individual? i.e. normal anxiety level = good for exam, abnormal anxiety level = debilitating
4. Social and political definitions
Normal vs. Healthy
Normal: usual/expected state
Healthy: functional, good health
Definition of mental disorder
Clinicall significant behavioral/psychological syndrome or pattern that is associated with present distress/disability or increased risk of suffering death, pain, disability or loss of freedom
How much does genetics contribute to mental illness?
4 domains of psychiatric dysfunctions
Percent of psychiatric illness
Explain the continuum between psychiatric health and illness
Psychiatric health and illness are inherently connected and there is a wide range of variability in what can be defined as "normal"
The conscious mind
I am aware
Traits: linear, analytical, intellectual, discrete, voluntary, logical, cognitive learning, verbal, limited focus, able to process only limited info at a given moment
Therapy: Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
The unconscious mind
Not in immediate field of awareness
Traits: intuitive, access to a great more deal of info, muti=tasking & multi-modal processing of information, non-linear, non-verbal, non-logical, associative, involuntary, literal, automatic
Somatization & somatic equivalents
Unconscious mechanism that creates biological manifstations to cope with mental issues
Defence mechanisms of the unconscious mind
Serves as a mechanism to cope with setress by providing relief from uncomfortable experiences, usually maladaptive
Repression: ignoring the issue
Denial: denying the issue
Regression: reverting to immature ways of dealing with the issue