FMS 4 - Psychiatry

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  1. Most important diagnostic tool of a doctor?
    Ears! Listening is key 
  2. Psychoneuroimmunology 
    • The study of the effect mood states (anxiety, depression) have and stress have on the immune system. 
    • Depression down-regulates the body's immune system 
  3. Psychobiological basis for stress's effect on the immune system
    Hypothalamus&pituitary glands secrete hormones in response to stress (physical or psychological) --> adrenal gland by kidneys --> cortisol --> immunosuppressive actions 
  4. Biopsychosocial model
    • Integration & interplay between biology, psychology, and sociology.
    • Allows MD to view patient's life from multiple perspective simultaneously.
  5. Meine Model 
    Rat pups that are licked are more resiliant to stress, pass on this resiliance to offspring. 

    Example of biopsychosocial model. 
  6. Epigenetics 
    Example of biopsychosocial phenom
  7. Biomedical medicine 
    Doesn't account for counfounding variables with respect to health like psychology and sociology 
  8. Context dependency 
    Viewing symptoms along with context in which they appear for dx 

    Mourning v. depression: based on context & appropriateness 
  9. DSM-IV
    • Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 
    • Diagnoses are based on descriptions (empirical and categorical) 
    • Etiology is rarely part of the diagnostic cirteria
  10. 5 axes of the DSM-IV
    • Asix I: Major psychopathology- depression, bipolar disorder
    • Axis II: Personality disorders- Antisocial etc. 
    • Axis III: Medical conditions: side effects of drugs given for medical conditions 
    • Axis V: Global Assessment of Functioning (10-100)
  11. Candidate v fate genes 
    • Fate: genetical predisposition 
    • Cadidate: may undergo epigenetics changes --> manifest as psychopathology 
    • Important in psychogenomics 
  12. Neuroimaging 
    • Allows for visualization of the biological impact psych intervention can have on the brain 
    • fMRI: changes in blood flow or cell metabolites to show change in activity 
  13. Suicide - no ? leading COD? 
    Suicide is the 8th leading COD 
  14. No. 1 cause of diability worldwide 
    Major depressive disorder 
  15. Lifestyle & personal habits account for __% of illness/death and __% of healthcare costs
    70, 70 
  16. What is mental health? 
    Successful performance of mental fxn --> productive activities, fulfilling relationships, the ability to adapt to change & cope with adversity 
  17. 4 ways to define normal/abnormal/pathological
    • 1. Professionally: common in all cultures 
    • 2. Deviation from mean: numerical 
    • 3. Assessment of function: do thoughts, feeling, and/or behavior have a functional or dysfunctional effect on the individual? i.e. normal anxiety level = good for exam, abnormal anxiety level = debilitating 
    • 4. Social and political definitions 
  18. Normal vs. Healthy 
    • Normal: usual/expected state 
    • Healthy: functional, good health 
  19. Definition of mental disorder
    Clinicall significant behavioral/psychological syndrome or pattern that is associated with present distress/disability or increased risk of suffering death, pain, disability or loss of freedom 
  20. How much does genetics contribute to mental illness? 
  21. 4 domains of psychiatric dysfunctions 
    • 1. Thought
    • 2. Mood/emotion 
    • 3. Behavior 
    • 4. Relationships 
  22. Percent of psychiatric illness 
  23. Explain the continuum between psychiatric health and illness
    Psychiatric health and illness are inherently connected and there is a wide range of variability in what can be defined as "normal" 
  24. The conscious mind
    • I am aware
    • Traits: linear, analytical, intellectual, discrete, voluntary, logical, cognitive learning, verbal, limited focus, able to process only limited info at a given moment
    • Therapy: Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
  25. The unconscious mind
    • Not in immediate field of awareness 
    • Traits: intuitive, access to a great more deal of info, muti=tasking & multi-modal processing of information, non-linear, non-verbal, non-logical, associative, involuntary, literal, automatic
    • Therapy: Psychodynamic 
  26. Somatization & somatic equivalents 
    Unconscious mechanism that creates biological manifstations to cope with mental issues 
  27. Defence mechanisms of the unconscious mind 
    • Serves as a mechanism to cope with setress by providing relief from uncomfortable experiences, usually maladaptive
    • Repression: ignoring the issue 
    • Denial: denying the issue 
    • Regression: reverting to immature ways of dealing with the issue
    • Projection: "he really hates me," projecting one's own thoughts onto others 
    • Displacement: to take out emotions on an unrelated party
    • Reaction formation: passive-sggressive, opposite 
    • Rationalization: being overly optimistic 
    • Intellectualization: thinking of a bad event as a cognitive problem i.e. seraching the internet for a reason why someone has cancer 
    • Sublimation: channeling the unacceptable into the acceptable i.e. someone with a brain tumor starts a foundation
    • Humor: using amusement to cope 
  28. Tranference 
    • Assignment to a person those feelings, attitudes, and expectations originally associated with another person 
    • i.e. someone expecting Dr. to be mean because parents were
  29. Countertransference 
    Transference on the part of the clinician to the patient 
  30. Prochaska's stages of change 
    • Understanding where person is with respect to thinking about and undertaking a change 
    • Clinical response to each stage is unique to that stage 
    • People live in a simultaneous mix of several stages and don't progress through them sequentially 
    • 1. Precontemplation: avoidance of problem 
    • 2. Contemplation: thinking about problem, ambivalence, pros vs cons of making change 
    • 3. Determination/Preparation: "there is a problem that i need to fix," transition from all talk --> action, considering how to make change 
    • 4. Action: new behaviors implemented, weak, committment is tested 
    • 5. Maintenance: intial goal met, behavior is stable 
    • Relapse: not a stage, returning to an earlier stage, normal
  31. Motivational interviewing
    A way of interacting and conversing with patients that has been shown to increase behavior change
  32. 3 majors rites of passage in life - Arnold van Gennep 
    • 1. Separation: from group/society 
    • 2. Transition: intermediate learning stage 
    • 3. Incorporation: reentry into group for new status/role 
  33. Adapting/coping through life 
    • Focused on defense mechanisms, showed that coping styles mature over time through development  
    • Immature: acting out, passive aggressive, regression, somatization
    • Mature: altruism, humor, anticipation, sublimation, suppression
  34. Midlife crises 
    • Pathological manifestation of midlife transition (40-45)
    • Feeling unwell in context of uncertainty/anxiety/depression
    • Bodily changes: decreased fxn = climacterium 
    • Changes in time perception: how long left 
    • Career issues: aspirations v. acheivements 
    • Relationships: spouse, kids, parents etc. 
    • Social changes: divorce
    • Financial pressures: job, money 
    • Dramatic, ongoing, often impulsive behavior with major changes in life, limited insight
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FMS 4 - Psychiatry
2012-12-21 00:13:40

FMS 4 review
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