Engineering Geology - Chapter 14 - Coastal Environments

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herfi001
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190390
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Engineering Geology - Chapter 14 - Coastal Environments
Updated:
2012-12-20 22:35:01
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Engineering Geology Civil Geotechnical Minnesota Coastal Environments Longshore Drift Erosion
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Chapter 14
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  1. List the 3 most common hydraulic structures constructed to prevent sedimentation or control erosion in coasts.
    • jetties,
    • groins
    • breakwaters.
  2. list at least 2 of the 3 elements forming a beach.
    • Beach face;
    • berm;
    • marine terrace.
  3. List at least 2 of the 3 depositional forms that long-shore drift can lead to.
    • Baymouth bar;
    • spit;
    • tombolo.
  4. List at least 3 of the 4 types of coasts discussed in class.
    • Erosional coast;
    • depositional coast;
    • drowned coast;
    • emergent coast.
  5. What is the name given to the large blocks of rock used to create coast walls? –hint: these blocks of rock are also used to protect the sand bar in lake Superior, in Duluth.
    Rip-rap
  6. What would happen to the beaches of most coasts if all the rivers flowing to the sea were dammed? Why?
    Because the main source of sediment would no longer deposit sand along the shore, it would erode until the beach no longer existed.
  7. What does the presence of an estuary imply about the recent geologic history of a region?
    The presence of an estuary suggests an overall rise in sea level over time, or a drowned river mouth.
  8. Describe how waves can straighten an irregular coastline.
    Waves erode the points (headlands) and deposit the eroded sediment in the bays, thereby straightening the coastline, possibly inducing the presence of straight, retreating cliffs.
  9. What is a longshore current? Why does it occur?
    • A longshore current is a moving mass of water developing parallel to the shoreline.
    • Longshore current occurs because wave crests cannot travel precisely parallel to the shoreline, therefore having some angle. This results in pushing the wave both towards land and parallel to the shore. If enough waves are pushed parallel to the shoreline, a moving mass of them will form referred to as longshore current.
  10. What is a rip current? Why does it occur? How do you get out of a rip current?
    • Rip current is a narrow current that flows straight out to sea, cutting through the surf zone. 
    • They oocur where waves in the surface are lowered by underwater channels or wave interference patterns. 
  11. The path a water particle makes as a wave passes in deep water is best described as
    A. elliptical
    B. spherical
    C. linear
    D. orbital
    D. orbital
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  12. The easiest method of escaping a rip current is to
    A. swim toward shore
    B. swim parallel to the shore
    C. swim away from the shore
    B. swim parallel to the shore
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  13. Why is beach sediment typically quartz-rich sand?
    A. none of the preceding
    B. quartz is resistant to chemical weathering
    C. quartz is the only mineral that can be sand-sized
    D. other minerals are not deposited on beaches
    B. quartz is resistant to chemical weathering
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  14. Longshore drift is
    A. the movement of sediment parallel to shore when waves strike the shoreline at an angle
    B. the movement of waves
    C. a type of rip current
    D. a type of tide
    A. the movement of sediment parallel to shore when waves strike the shoreline at an angle
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  15. hich structure would interfere with longshore drift?
    A. jetties
    B. groins
    C. breakwaters
    D. all of the preceding
    D. all of the preceding
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  16. What is the most common source of sand on beaches?
    A. sand from river sediment brought down to the ocean
    B. offshore sediments
    C. land next to the beach
    A. sand from river sediment brought down to the ocean
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  17. Which would characterize an erosional coast?
    A. all of the preceding
    B. stacks
    C. arches
    D. headlands
    E. sea cliffs
    A. all of the preceding
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  18. Which would characterize a depositional coast?
    A. headlands
    B. sea cliffs
    C. stacks
    D. arches
    E. barrier islands
    E. barrier islands
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  19. A glacial valley drowned by rising sea level is
    A. an estuary
    B. a fiord
    C. a headland
    D. a tombolo
    B. a fiord
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  20. The surf zone is
    A. the area in which waves break
    B. where the longshore current flows
    C. water less than one-half wavelength in depth
    D. all of the preceding
    D. all of the preceding
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  21. he storm surge of a hurricane is
    A. the area of high pressure within the storm
    B. the tallest waves
    C. the highest winds
    D. the dome of high water in the center of the hurricane
    D. the dome of high water in the center of the hurricane
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)

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