Engineering Geology - Everything else

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herfi001
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190392
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Engineering Geology - Everything else
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2012-12-20 23:18:08
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Engineering Geology Minnesota
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everything else
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  1.  List the geological eras, from younger to oldest.
    • -Cenozoic.
    • -Mesozoic.
    • -Paleozoic.
    • -Precambrian.
  2. What is the approximate age of the Earth –in billions of years (or Ga)?
     ~4.5 Ga (4.6 Ga is also correct).
  3. List at least 4 of the 6 principles for relative age determination discussed in class.
    • -Original horizontality.
    • -Superposition.
    • -Lateral continuity.
    • -Cross-cutting relationships.
    • -Baked contacts.
    • -Inclusions.
  4. What is an unconformity?
    An unconformity is a surface (or contact) that represents a gap in the geologic record.
  5. What is the difference between a fault and a joint?
    Joints are fractures in the rock along which no movement has occurred –whereas faults are fractures along with movement has occurred.
  6.  List at least 2 of the 3 types of faults discussed in class.
    • -Dip-slip faults
    • Strike-slip faults
    • Oblique-slip faults
  7. List at least 4 of the 5 types of folds discussed in class.
    • Plunging (folds).
    • Open (folds).
    • Isoclinal (folds).
    • Overturned (folds).
    • Recumbent (folds).
  8. What is the difference between a normal fault and a reverse fault?
    In normal faults the hanging-wall block has moved down relative to the footwall block; in reverse faults the opposite has occurred.
  9. List at least 2 ore minerals which are typical ore sources for Iron.
    • Magnetite;
    • hematite;
    • goethite;
    • limonite
  10. List at least 1 ore mineral that is a typical ore source for Copper (do not include natural copper).
    • Chalcopyrite;
    • bornite;
    • chalcocite
  11. List at least 3 of the 4 types of mines discussed in class.
    • Underground mine;
    • open pit mine;
    • strip mine;
    • placer mine.
  12. List at least 4 of the 6 types of metal ore deposits discussed in class.
    •  -Crystal settling (within cooling magma).
    • -Hydrothermal deposits.
    • -Pegmatites.
    • -Chemical precipitation as sediment.
    • -Placer deposits.
    • -Concentration by weathering and ground water.
  13. List at least 3 of the 4 proper conditions for the formation of oil and gas deposits.
    • -Source rock rich in organic matter.
    • -Porous rock in which oil can be stored (and also flow through).
    • -Deep burial and long time for organic matter to be ‘cooked’.
    • -Oil trap.
  14. What is the name given to the iron ore rock mined underground (and also at the surface) in Minnesota, until the mid-1900s?
    Natural Ore (Hematite and Goethite are also correct).
  15. List the name of at least 2 of the 3 iron ranges in Minnesota.
    • Mesabi Range;
    • Vermilion Range;
    • Cuyuna Range.
  16. List the 3 classes of movements defining types of mass wasting.
    • Flow;
    • Slide;
    • Fall.
  17. List at least 2 diagnostic indicators for creep mass wasting.
    .
    • tilted poles;
    • tilted fences;
    • curved tree trunks;
    • bent and broken walls;
    • tilted gravestones
  18. Which are the two types of slides?
    Translational and rotational.
  19. Which is the main factor controlling mass wasting.
    Gravity.
  20. List 2 of the 3 negative effects of water in the ground, in relation to triggering mass wasting.
    • -Water adds weight to the ground.
    • -Water acts as a lubricant.
    • -Water produces a buoyancy effect that decreases the ground shear strength.
  21. List 2 of the 3 typical forms by which streams carry sediments?
    • -As bed load.
    • -As suspended load.
    • -As dissolved load.
  22. List 3 of the 4 types of drainage patterns.
    • -Dendritic.
    • -Radial.
    • -Rectangular.
    • -Trellis.
  23. Define a delta.
    A delta is a body of sediment deposited at the mouth of a river when flow velocity decreases as a result of the stream entering a large body of water.
  24. List at least 2 of the 3 means by which floods can be controlled.
    • -by construction of dams.
    • -by construction of artificial levees.
    • -by wise land-use and planning.
  25. What are the two common types of aquifers?
     unconfined and confined aquifers.
  26. Define and aquitard.
    An aquitard (or aquiclude) is a rock or sediment that retards ground water flow due to low porosity and/or permeability (e.g., shale, clay, unfractured crystalline rocks are relatively impermeable and can behave as aquitards).
  27. Karsts are characteristic of which which types of rock?
    Calcareous rocks (e.g., limestone, dolostone)
  28. What is a perched water table?
    A perched water table is a water table separated from the main water table by a non-saturated zone. Perched water tables are typically produced by thin lenses of impermeable rock (e.g., shales or clays) within permeable ones
  29. List two physically measurable properties of the ground (e.g., of a soil), which control groundwater flow.
    Porosity; permeability.
  30. What is a fjord?
    it is a submerged glacier valley (i.e., a submerged U-shaped valley)
  31. List 3 of the 5 typical erosional features and landscapes characteristic of glaciers.
    • U-shaped valleys;
    • hanging valleys,
    • cirques,
    • arêtes;
    • horns
  32. List the 3 most common hydraulic structures constructed to prevent sedimentation or control erosion in coasts.
    • jetties,
    • groins,
    • breakwaters.
  33. List at least 3 factors that control metamorphism.
    • pressure;
    • temperature;
    • time;
    • parent rock;
    • fluids like water.
  34. List at least one diagnostic mineral typically produced by metamorphism.
    • garnet;
    • kyanite;
    • sillimanite.
  35. Metamorphic rocks are classified in 2 main groups. Which is the designation of these 2 groups?
    .
    foliated and non-foliated
  36. what is the parent sedimentary rock of the metamorphic rock marble?
    limestone (dolostone is accepted too).
  37. What is the parent sedimentary rock of the metamorphic rock quartzite?
    quartz sandstone (sandstone only is accepted too).
  38. What is the parent sedimentary rock of the metamorphic rock anthracite? 
    peat.
  39. List at least 3 foliated metamorphic rocks in order of increasing degree of metamorphism. 
    • slate;
    • phyllite;
    • schist;
    • gneiss;
    • migmanite;
  40. Which metamorphic rock is used to create shingles for roof construction? 
    slate.
  41. What distinct physical diagnostic property can be used to distinguish a marble from a quartzite? 
    reaction with light hydrochloric acid (hardness, e.g., glass scratching is also correct).
  42. Mafic rocks contain about ______% silica.
    A. 80
    B. 50
    C. 65
    D. 25
    E. 10
    B. 50
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  43. Felsic rocks contain about ______% silica.
    A. 10
    B. 70
    C. 25
    D. 80
    E. 50
    B. 70
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  44. Name two major types of volcano?
    • Shield
    • cinder cone
    • composite
    • stratovolcano
  45. what are the various sources of heat for metamorphism?
    Flow of geothermal energy from Earth’s interior, intrusive body of magma (pluton), heat from impact of meteor, hydrothermal fluids along active plate boundaries
  46. How do regional metamorphic rocks commonly differ in texture from contact metamorphic rocks?
    Rocks associated to regional metamorphism tend to be foliated; occurs at great depths; wide scale, typically occurring with/in orogenic events. Rocks associated to contact metamorphism tend to be non-foliated; a pluton intrudes through the country rock, metamorphosing proximal country rock; occurs at shallow conditions.
  47. How would you distinguish between schist and gneiss?
    Schists normally have visible platy or elongated minerals with planar alignment (e.g., micas), while gneisses normally have light and dark colored crystalline minerals arranged in bands.
  48. How would you distinguish between slate and phyllite?
    Slates normally have earthy luster while phyllites normally have a silky/shinny luster
  49. How would you distinguish between quartzite and marble?
    Quartzites are composed mainly by Quartz while marbles are composed mainly by Calcite. Hardness (resistance to scratching, e.g., with a steel knife) would allow to distinguish them, as would HCl
  50. How would you distinguish between granite and gneiss?
    Granites and Gneisses could be distinguished by the banded/folded arrangements of minerals in the rock (Granites do not have bands/folds, while Gneisses do).
  51. Metamorphic rocks with a planar texture (the constituents of the rock are parallel to one another) are said to be
    A. concordant
    B. nonfoliated
    C. foliated
    D. discordant
    C. foliated
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  52. Metamorphic rocks are classified primarily on
    A. texture—the presence or absence of foliation
    B. mineralogy—the presence or absence of quartz
    C. environment of deposition
    D. chemical composition
    A. texture—the presence or absence of foliation
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  53. Which is not a foliated metamorphic rock?
    A. slate
    B. quartzite
    C. schist
    D. gneiss
    B. quartzite
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  54. what is the sequence of rocks that are formed when shale undergoes prograde metamorphism?
    • slate,
    • phyllite.
    • schist,
    • gneiss
  55. What is the difference and/or relationship between metamorphism and metasomatism?
    metasomatism is metamorphism coupled with the introduction of ions from an external source
  56. what is a metamorphic rock that has undergone partial melting to produce a mixed igneous- metamorphic rock?
    migmatite

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