Rad Physics 10_5 Bushong Chapter 2 ksw.txt

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Rad Physics 10_5 Bushong Chapter 2 ksw.txt
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Radiation Physics
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RadPhysics Bushong Ch. 2
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  1. Today,_______elements have been identified._____ are naturally occurring and ____ have been artificially produced in high energy particle accerlerators.
    118, 92, 26
  2. An _____is the smallest paricle that has all the properties of an element.
    atom
  3.  _______ model of the atom is a miniature solar system in which ______ revolve around the _______ in prescribed orbits or ________ ________.
    Bohr's, electrons,nucleus, energy levels
  4. Although the Bohr atom represents the best way to picture an atom for our purposes, the details of atomic structure are much more accurately described by a newer model  called _______ ________(      ).
    quantum chromodynamics(QCD)
  5. The fundamental particles of the atom are the _____, _____, and the _________. The ______ and _____, because they are found in the nucleus, are called __________.

    *quarks, gluons, etc. are not considered here because they are not important to radiologic science
    electron, proton, neutron, proton, neutron, nucleons
  6. More than ______ subatomic particles have identified and mapped by physicists using high  energy ______ ________. or "atom smasherss".
    100, particle accelerators

    http://science.howstuffworks.com/atom-smasher.htm
  7. Electrons are very small particles that carry one unit of _______  electric charge. Their mass is only ______'
    negative, 9.1 x 10⁻³¹kg
  8. Because an atomic is extremely small it is expressed in ___ _____  _______(   ).
    atomic mass units(amu)
  9. One amu is equal to ________  of the mass of a _______ atom.
    one twelth(1/12), carbon 12
  10. The electron mass is __________ amu.
    0.000549
  11. When precision is not necessary then a system of whole numbers called ______ ____ ______ are used.
    atomic mass numbers
  12. The nucleus contains particles called ______ , of which there are two types: ______ and ______.
    nucleons, protons, neutrons
  13. The proton carries ____ unit of ____ electric charge.
    one, positive
  14. The neutron carries ____ charge; it is electrically _______.
    no, neutral
  15. The atom is esentially ______ space.
    empty
  16. The number of ______ determines the ______ ______ of an element.
    protons, chemical beahvior
  17. The number of protons determines the ______ _______.
    chemeical element
  18. Elelments that have the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons are called ______.
    • isotopes
    • *remember the p so you know that isotopes have the SAME number of PROTONS
  19. Electrons only exist in certain ____ which represent different ______ _______ _____ or ______ _____.
    shells, electron binding energies, energy levels
  20. For identification purposes the electron orbital shells are given the codes ______, ____, _____, and so forth, to represent the relative binding energies of electrons from closest to farthest from the nucleus.
    K,L,M
  21. The closer an electron is to the nucleus the ______ its binding energy.
    binding
  22. In their normal  state atoms are electrically ______. The electric charge being______.
    • neutral, zero
  23. If  atom has an extra electron or has had an electron removed, it is said to be ________.
    ionized
  24. Atoms can not be ionized by the addition of subtraction of _______.
    protons
  25. _______is the removal or addition of an electron from an atom.
    ionization
  26. The maximum number of electrons that can occupy an electron shell is expressed by the equation__________.
    2n² where n=the shell number
  27. Physicists call the shell number, n, the _________ _______  _________.
    principal quantum number
  28. The number of electrons in the outermost shell is equal to it's _______ in the periodic table and determines it's  ______.
    group, *valence

    • *valence here refers to combining power
    • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Valence_%28chemistry%29
  29. The number of the outermost electron shell(n) is equal to it's ___________ in the periodic table.
    period

  30. Dmitriv Mendeleev showed that if the elements where arranged in order of increasing mass, a _____repetition of similar ______ _______ occurred. His work resulted in the first ______ _______ of the elements. It showed that all of the then known elements could be placed into ____ groups.
    periodic, chemical properties, periodic table, eight
  31. Do electrons have mass?
    yes! 9.1 x 10⁻³¹kg

    very very very light
  32. No outer shell can contain more than_______electrons.
    eight
  33. All atoms with one electron in the outer shell lie in _____ ____ in the periodic table, and all atoms with two electrons in the outer shell lie in ______ ______  and so forth.
    group 1, group 2
  34. What group and period does and atom that has 3 electrons in it's outer shell and has 4 shells?
    Group 3, Period 4
  35. What is the maximum number of electrons that can exist in the N shell?
    • 32
    • * the formula is :
    • 2n² where n=the shell number,     2 x 4²=32

    • n=4 (K=1, L=2, M=3,N=4. etc)
    • remember the shell names START with K
  36. The orderly progression from smallest to largest atom is interrupted in the fourth period. Instead of simply adding electrons to the next shell, electrons are added to an inner shell. The atoms associated with this phenomenon are called __________ ___________ .
    transitional elements
  37. The force that keeps an electron in orbit is the ______ force.
    centripedal

    like a racecar on a  track
  38. In the normal atom the centripetal force just balances the force created  by the electron velocity or the ______ ______.
    centrifugal force

    like a salad spinner
  39. The strength of the attachment of an electron to the nucleus is called the ______ _____ ______.
    electron binding energy
  40. The closer an electron is to the nucleus the _____ ______ it is bound.  For instance, K shell electrons have ______ binding energies than  L shell  electrons, L shell electrons are ____ tightly bound to the nucleus than M shell electron, and so forth.
    more tightly, higher, more
  41. Which electrons have more electron binding energy:  M shell electrons or O shell electrons?
    M

    closer to the nucleus-more electron binding energy
  42. The ______ the total number of electrons in an atom, the the more tightly each is bound.   For instance,the electrons in a K shell with more electrons will have _____  binding energy than a K shell with ____ electrons.
    greater, greater, less
  43. The larger and more complex the atom, the ______ the Eb for electrons in any given shell.
    higher
  44. It generally takes ______energy to ionize a large atom than a small atom.
    more
  45. Approximately _____ to ionize tissue atoms. This is called the _______ _______.
    34eV, ionization potential
  46. Abbreviations for elements are called _______.
    chemical symbols
  47. The number of protons is called the ______.
    atomic number(symbolized by Z)

    •    
    • The elements are arrangend in order of atomic number in the periodic table(Hydrogen is 1, Helium is 2, Lithium is 3, etc)
  48. The number pf protons plus the number of neutrons in the nucleus is called the atomic ___ _____.
     (atomic) mass number (symbolized by A)

    •  
    • *remember that the atomic mass number is always a whole number because it doesn't represent the PRECISE mass.
  49. The atomic mass number and the precise  mass of an atom are ______  _______.
    not equal
  50. The _____ ________ is determined by calculating the average of all the isotopes.
    elemental mass
  51. Atoms that have the same atomic number but different atomic mass numbers are __________.
    isotopes

    • *same number of protons
    • because they have different numbers of neutrons
  52. ______nuclei have the same atomic mass number but different atomic numbers
    • Isobars
    •  *remember the A for same atomic mass #/ different atomic #
    • same number of nucleons but varying amounts of protons and neutrons.
  53. Atoms that have the same number of neutrons but a different number of protons are called ________.
    isotones

    • * same neutrons
  54. ______ have the same atomic number and the same atomic mass number.
    isomer

    • *metastable
    • same number of neutrons, same atomic mass number, and atomic number(same number of protons)
    • ALL the same EXCEPT that they exist at different energy states because of different nucleon arrangement
  55. Atoms of various elements may combine to form structures called _________.
    molecules

    Did I really just make a flash card for this ??
  56. A ________ _______ is any quantity of one type of molecules.
    chemical compound
  57. Almost _____% of the Earth and it's atmosphere consists of only a dozen elements.
    95%
  58. Hydrogen, ______,________, and ________ compose more than ______% of the human body.
    Carbon, Oxygen, Nitrogen

    nitrogen, oxygen, carbon, hydrogen  (NOCH)
  59. The smallest particle of an element is an ______, the smallest particle of a compound is a ________.
    atom, molecule
  60. The smallest particle of an _____ is an atom, the smallest particle of a ________ is a molecule.
    element, compound
  61. Water molecules make up approximately _____ of the human body.
    80%
  62. Oxygen and hydrogen combine into water through ______  bonds which is characterized by the sharing of electrons.
    covalent
  63. Sodium and chlorine combine  into salt through _______ bonds.Sodium has one electron in it's outermost shell that it gives up to chlorine which has space for one more electron in it's outer shell. When this happens, the loss of the sodium's electron and the chlorine's gain of an electron causes both atoms to become _________. The two atoms are attracted to each other(the sodium no has a - charge, the chlorine a + charge), resulting in an ________ bond because they have opposite electrostatic charges.
    • ionic, ionized, ionic
  64. A measurable quantity of sodium bicarbonate (Na HCO3) constitutes a chemical compound commonly known as ____ ______.
    baking soda
  65. Some atoms exist in an abnormally excited state characterized by an unstable  ______. To reach stability, the nucleus spontaneously emit particles and energy that transforms itself into another ______. This process is called _____ ______ or _______ ____________.
    nucleus, atom, radioactive disentegration, radioactive decay.
  66. The atoms involved in radioactive decay are _______.
    Any nuclear arrangement is called a nuclide; only nuclei that undergo _____ ______ are  __________.
    radionuclides, radioactive decay, radionuclides
  67. _________ is the emission of particles and energy in order to become stable.
    Radioactivity
  68. The most important factor of nuclear stability is the number of ___________.
    neutrons
  69. In addition to stable isotopes, many elements have a ______ ______ or ____________.
    radioactive isotopes, radioisotopes
  70. Radioisotopes can decay to stability in many ways such as  _______ ______ and ______ ________, or positron emission which is important for some nuclear medicine imaging.
    beta emission, alpha emission
  71. The result of ______ _____ is to increase the atomic number by 1
    beta enission
  72. ______ _____ results in emission of alpha particles, beta particles, and usually gamma rays.
    radioactive decay
  73. _____ emission occurs much more frequently than ________  emission
    beta, alpha
  74. Radioactive isotopes disintegrate at a decreasing rate so that the quantity of radioactive material never quite reaches ______.
    zero
  75. The _____ ______ of a radioisotope is the time required for a quantity of radioactivity to be reduced to one-half its original value.
    half life
  76. 3.3 half lives =   _____(a fraction)  life
    1 tenth
  77. X-rays and gamma rays are often called ______ which have no ______ and no_______.
    photons, mass, charge
  78. X-rays and gamma rays exist at the speed of ________ or _____ ___ _______.
    light, not at all.
  79. Photon radiation loses _____ with distance but theoretically never reaches _____.
    intensity, zero(0)
  80. An _____ particle is a helium nucleus that contains two protons and two neutrons.
    alpha
  81. An alpha particle carries ___ units of ______ charge.
    2, positive
  82. There are two main types of particulate radiation ___ and ________ particles.
    alpha, beta
  83. The only difference between electrons and negative ____ particles is their origin.
    beta
  84. A _____ particle is an electron emitted from the nucleus of a radioactive nucleus.
    beta
  85. An _____ particle travels less than 100 µm in tissue while ___ particles travel approximately 1-2 cm in soft tissue.
    alpha, beta

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