Ch 11 Government

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hchristensen
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190437
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Ch 11 Government
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2012-12-26 18:23:05
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Questions from Ch 11 Government for Hi-Q
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  1. What term means granted or given?
    delegated
  2. What type of specific powers means explicitly, in its specific wording?
    expressed powers
  3. What type of specific powers means by reasonable deduction from the expressed powers?
    implied powers
  4. What type of specific powers means by creating a national government for the United States?
    inherent powers
  5. What group of people, led by Thomas Jefferson, continued to argue the Anti-Federalish position from the ratification period?
    strict constructionists
  6. Who led the strict constructionists, who continued to argue the Anti-Federalist position from the ratification period?
    Thomas Jefferson
  7. What Democrat from California, who represents part of Los Angeles in the House, is an active member of the Congressional Hispanic Caucus?
    Xavier Becerra
  8. What group of people, led by Alexander Hamilton, had led the fight to adopt the Constitution?
    liberal constructionists
  9. Who led the liberal constructionists, who had led the fight to adopt the Constitution?
    Alexander Hamilton
  10. What term means general agreement?
    consensus
  11. What amendment gives Congress the power to levy an income tax?
    16th Amendment
  12. What six amendments grant Congress the "power to enforce" the provisions of the amendment "by appropriate legislation"?
    13th, 14th, 15th, 19th, 24th, and 26th Amendments
  13. What is a charge levied by government on persons or property to meet public needs called?
    tax
  14. What is the oldest example of a tax, with the goal of "protecting" domestic industry against foreign competition by increasing the cost of foreign goods?
    protective tariff
  15. What kind of tax is paid by the person on whom it is imposed?
    direct tax
  16. What kind of tax is one first paid by one person but then passed on to another?
    indirect tax
  17. What is it called when the Federal Government spends more than it takes in each year and borrows to make up the difference?
    deficit financing
  18. What is the term for more income than spending?
    surplus
  19. What is the term for all of the money borrowed by the government over the years and not yet repaid, plus the accumulated interest on that money?
    public debt
  20. The passage of what act caused Congress and President Clinton to agree to abandon deficit financing and to aim for a balanced budget by the year 2002?
    Balanced Budget Act of 1997
  21. What is the power of Congress to regulate interstate and foreign trade called?
    commerce power
  22. What clause, written by the Framers, gives Congress the power: "To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian Tribes"?
    Commerce Clause
  23. What 1824 case was the first involving the Commerce Clause to reach the Supreme Court?  It arose out of a clash over the regulation of steamboats by the State of New York, on the one hand, and the Federal Government, on the other.
    Gibbons v. Ogden
  24. What was the name of Robert Fulton's steamboat?
    the Clermont
  25. In 1807, the Clermont made its first successful run up the Hudson River.  What was the starting point and destination of this trip?
    New York City to Albany
  26. What man gained a permit for steamboat navigation between New York City and New Jersey because of Fulton's monopoly?
    Aaron Ogden
  27. What man, operating with a coasting license from the Federal Government, began to carry passengers on a line that competed with Ogden?
    Thomas Gibbons
  28. It is on the basis of the commerce power that what act prohibits discrimination in access to or service in hotels, motels, theaters, restaurants, and in other public accommodations on grounds of race, color, religion, or national origin?
    Civil Rights Act of 1964
  29. In what 1964 case did the Supreme Court uphold the prohibition of the use of commerce power to discriminate?
    Heart of Atlanta Motel v. United States
  30. What act made it a federal crime for anyone other than a polic officer to possess a firearm in or around a school?
    Gun-Free School Zone Act of 1990
  31. What 1995 Supreme Court case struck down the Gun-Free School Zone Act of 1990?
    United States v. Lopez
  32. What is any kind of money that a creditor must by law accept in payment for debts called?
    legal tender
  33. What were the new national notes called?  At first, they could not be redeemed for gold or silver coin at the Treasury.
    Greenbacks
  34. What "Continental" note, engraved by Benjamin Franklin, was issued to finance the American Revolution? (1776)
    One third dollar
  35. What early American coin depicts a woman representing Liberty on the face and a laurel wreath on the reverse? (1834)
    United States half cent
  36. With metal badly needed for the Civil War, Congress issued this "Greenaback", the first paper currency since the Continental? (1861)
    $10 demand note
  37. What note, redeemable for silver, features George Washington's wife?
    $1 silver certificate
  38. In what case did the Supreme Court say that "to coin" meant to stamp metal and so the Constitution did not authorize paper money?
    Hepburn v. Griswold
  39. In what 1871 case did the Supreme Court change its mind about its ruling that the Constitution did not authorize money?  In this case, it held the issuing of paper money as legal tender to be a proper use of the currency power.
    Legal Tender Cases
  40. In what 1884 case did the Supreme Court change its mind about its ruling that the Constitution did not authorize money?  In this case, it held the issuing of paper money as legal tender to be a proper use of the currency power.
    Juliard v. Greenman
  41. What is the legal proceeding in which the bankrupt's assets - however much or little they may be - are distributed among those to whom a debt is owed called?
    bankruptcy
  42. In what field does the National Government have the greatest powers?
    foreign affairs
  43. Who can declare war?
    Congress
  44. What are written grants of power authorizing private persons to outfit vessels to capture and destroy enemy vessels in time of war called?
    letters of marque and reprisal
  45. Letters of marque and reprisal are forbidden by international law by what declaration?  The United States honors this rule.
    Declaration of Paris, 1856
  46. Congress claimed the power to restrict the use of American forces in combat in areas where a state of war does not exist with the passage of what resolution?
    War Powers Resolution of 1973
  47. What is the process by which citizens of one country become citizens of another called?
    naturalization
  48. Who is generally credited as the founder of the present-day postal system?
    Benjamin Franklin
  49. What is the exclusive right of an author to reproduce, publish, and sell his or her creative work called?
    copyright
  50. In what office are copyrights registered?
    Copyright Office in the Library of Congress
  51. What grants a person the sole right to manufacture, use, or sell "any new and useful art, machine, manufacture, or composition of matter, or any new and useful improvement thereof" and is good for up to 20 years?
    patent
  52. What office in the Department of Commerce administers patent laws?
    The Patent and Trademark Office
  53. Where is the Patent and Trademark Office located?
    Department of Commerce
  54. In what 1991 case did the Supreme Court hold that such "factual compilations" as telephone directories "lack the requisite originality" for copyright protection? 
    Feist Publications, Inc. v. Rural Telephone Service Co.
  55. What kind of intellectual property protects useful processes, machines, articles of manufacture, and compositions of matter?  (ex: fiber optics, computer hardware, medications)
    utility patents
  56. What kind of intellectual property protects works of authorship, such as writings, music, and works of art that have been "tangibly expressed" - that is, in some way published, written, recorded, or made?  (ex: books, film, video games)
    copyrights
  57. What kind of intellectual property prohibits the unauthorized use of new, original, and ornamental designs for manufactured articles?  (ex: the look of an athletic shoe, a bicycle helmet, Star Wars characters)
    design patents
  58. What kind of intellectual property protects certain invented or discovered plant varieties?  (ex: hybrid tea roses, Silver Queen corn, Better Boy tomatoes)
    plant patents
  59. What kind of intellectual property protects words, names, symbols, sounds, or colors that distinguish goods and services?  These may be renewed forever, as long as they are being used in business.  (ex: roar of lion in MGM movies, three-peat)
    trademarks
  60. What kind of intellectual property is information that companies keep secret to give them an advantage over their competitors?  (ex: recipe for Coca-Cola, recipe for KFC)
    trade secrets
  61. What agency, now known as the National Institute of Standards and Technology, was created in 1901 in the Commerce Department and keeps the standards for weight and measure?
    National Bureau of Standards
  62. What is the National Bureau of Standards now called?
    National Institute of Standards and Technology
  63. What is the inherent power to take private property for public use called?  The Federal Government may acquire property by exercising this.
    eminent domain
  64. What amendment restricts the government's use of the power of eminent domain with these words: "nor shall private property be taken for public use without just compensation"?
    5th Amendment
  65. What term means "assigns to a particular use"?
    appropriate
  66. What clause in the Constitution gives Congress the power to: "To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers and all other Powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the United States, or in any Department or Office thereof"?
    Necessary and Proper Clause
  67. What is the nickname for the Necessary and Proper Clause?  (because it has been stretched so far and made to cover so much over the years)
    Elastic Clause
  68. In 1790, who was Secretary of the Treasury and urged Congress to set up a national bank?
    Alexander Hamilton
  69. What 1890 act regulated monopolies and other practices that limit competition?
    Sherman Antitrust Act
  70. What 1935 act protected the right of labor unions and workers to engage in collective bargaining?
    Wagner Act
  71. In 1818, what state placed a tax on all notes issued by any bank doing business in the State but not chartered by the State legislature?
    Maryland
  72. Who was the Second Bank's cashier that purposely issued notes on which no tax had been paid?
    James McCulloch
  73. In what 1819 case did the Supreme Court hold that the Constitution need not expressly empower Congress to create a bank?
    McCulloch v. Maryland
  74. Who wrote the Supreme Court's opinion in the McCulloch v. Maryland case?
    Chief Justice John Marshall
  75. In 1947, what was established as a separate branch of the military?
    U.S. Air Force
  76. What 1956 act provided federal funds to build a national highway system?
    Interstate Highway Act
  77. In what 1987 case did the Supreme Court uphold the law that cuts federal highway funds to States that fail to set 21 as minimum drinking age?
    South Dakota v. Dole
  78. In what 1995 case did the Supreme Court reject the federal law establishing gun-free zones near schools?
    United States v. Lopez
  79. What is a principle or fundamental policy called?
    doctrine
  80. In early December 1996, who argued before the U.S. Supreme Court on the merits of the Brady Act, which allows a police background check on people seeking to buy handguns?
    Acting Solicitor General Walter E. Dellinger III
  81. What act allows a police background check on people seeking to buy handguns?
    Brady Act
  82. Who curtly informed Dellinger that the Supreme Court of the United States did not base its rulings on straw polls after Dellinger spoke about the Brady Act?
    Chief Justice William H. Rehnquist
  83. What law professor at the University of Virginia said, "There are enough cases now where I think Congress ought to think of it as a wake-up call"?
    A. E. Dick Howard
  84. What chairman of the Senate Judiciary Committee said he is "very happy with these decisions" because they indicate that "we have a Congress that operates under limited and enumerated powers"?
    Orrin G. Hatch (R., Utah)
  85. What article gives Congress the power to propose amendments by a two-thirds vote in each house?  Congress has done this 33 times so far.
    Article V
  86. What amendment gave women the right to vote?
    19th Amendment
  87. In 1972, Congress proposed what amendment that eventually failed the ratification process after a long, divisive battle?
    Equal Rights Amendment
  88. What amendment makes it possible for the President to be of one party and the Vice President another?
    12th Amendment
  89. Who may be called on to elect a President?
    House of Representatives
  90. Who must choose a Vice President when no candidate wins a majority of the electoral votes?
    the Senate
  91. What two presidents did the House choose? (1801 and 1825)
    • Thomas Jefferson
    • John Quincy Adams
  92. Who is the only Vice President that the Senate has had to choose? (1837)
    Richard M. Johnson
  93. What amendment provides for the filling of a vacancy in the vice presidency?
    25th Amendment
  94. What is a replacement, someone to fill the vacancy, subject to a majority vote in both houses of Congress called?
    successor
  95. What two men were confirmed as Vice Presidents through the process of the 25th Amendment? (1973 and 1974)
    • Gerald Ford
    • Nelson Rockefeller
  96. What term means to accuse, bring charges?
    impeach
  97. What term means to judge, sit as a court?
    try
  98. Who has the sole power to impeach?
    the House
  99. Who has the sole power to try impeachment cases?
    the Senate
  100. Who presides over the Senate when a President is to be tried?
    Chief Justice
  101. Who is the only other federal officer ever impeached?  He was President Grant's Secretary of War and had been accused of accepting bribes and, although he had resigned from office, was impeached by the House in 1876.  He was then tried by the Senate and found not guilty.
    William W. Belknap
  102. What two Presidents have been impeached? (1868 and 1998)
    • Andrew Johnson
    • Bill Clinton
  103. What term means to find not guilty?
    acquit
  104. Who became the nation's 17th President when Abraham Lincoln was assassinated in 1865?
    Andrew Johnson
  105. Andrew Johnson became enmeshed in disputes with what group that controlled Congress?
    Radical Republicans
  106. What law did President Johnson violate that triggered his impeachment?  This act was passed by Congress over the President's veto in 1867.
    Tenure of Office Act
  107. What term means lying under oath?
    perjury
  108. What term means a formal condemnation of behavior?
    censure
  109. In 1974, who resigned in the face of almost certain impeachment?
    Richard Nixon
  110. What term comes from a June 1972 attempt by Republican operatives to break into the Democratic Party's national headquarters in the Watergate office complex in Washington, D.C.?
    Watergate
  111. What media newspaper investigated the Watergate scandal?
    Washington Post
  112. What groups conducted official investigations on the Watergate scandal?
    • Department of Justice
    • Senate's Select Committee on Presidential Campaign Activities
  113. What was the Senate's Select Committee on Presidential Campaign Activities popularly known as?
    Senate Watergate Committee
  114. What government agencies were used for personal and partisan purposes during the Watergate scandal?
    • Federal Bureau of Investigation
    • Internal Revenue Service
  115. What group voted three articles of impeachment against President Nixon in late July 1974?
    House Judiciary Committee
  116. What is a legal order directing one to appear in court and/or to produce certain evidence called?
    subpoena
  117. Who was the first Cabinet appointment to be rejected by the Senate?  He was Andrew Jackson's choice for secretary of the treasury.
    Roger B. Taney
  118. Who did Andrew Jackson choose to succeed John Marshall as Chief Justice?
    Roger B. Taney
  119. At what Kentucky high school were the December 1997 fatal shootings?
    West Paducah High School
  120. Who does the President most often consult for advice on treaties?
    Senate Foreign Relations Committee
  121. What amendment guarantees each individual the equal protection of the laws?
    14th Amendment
  122. A provision of what 1964 act made it unlawful for hotels, motels, restaurants, or any other place of "public accommodation" to discriminate in granting access or providing service because of a customer's race, sex, color, religion, or national origin?
    Civil Rights Act of 1964
  123. What was one facility that had regularly refused to rent rooms to African Americans?
    Heart of Atlanta Motel
  124. Where was the Heart of Atlanta Motel located?  It was close to two State highways and two interstate freeways.
    Atlanta, Georgia
  125. What 1964 Supreme Court case involves a motel owner's right to rent rooms to whomever he pleases and the Civil Rights Act?
    Heart of Atlanta Motel, Inc. v. United States
  126. What amendment prohibits the "taking" of property without just compensation?
    5th Amendment

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