What type of specific powers means explicitly, in its specific wording?
What type of specific powers means by reasonable deduction from the expressed powers?
What type of specific powers means by creating a national government for the United States?
What group of people, led by Thomas Jefferson, continued to argue the Anti-Federalish position from the ratification period?
Who led the strict constructionists, who continued to argue the Anti-Federalist position from the ratification period?
What Democrat from California, who represents part of Los Angeles in the House, is an active member of the Congressional Hispanic Caucus?
What group of people, led by Alexander Hamilton, had led the fight to adopt the Constitution?
Who led the liberal constructionists, who had led the fight to adopt the Constitution?
What term means general agreement?
What amendment gives Congress the power to levy an income tax?
What six amendments grant Congress the "power to enforce" the provisions of the amendment "by appropriate legislation"?
13th, 14th, 15th, 19th, 24th, and 26th Amendments
What is a charge levied by government on persons or property to meet public needs called?
What is the oldest example of a tax, with the goal of "protecting" domestic industry against foreign competition by increasing the cost of foreign goods?
What kind of tax is paid by the person on whom it is imposed?
What kind of tax is one first paid by one person but then passed on to another?
What is it called when the Federal Government spends more than it takes in each year and borrows to make up the difference?
What is the term for more income than spending?
What is the term for all of the money borrowed by the government over the years and not yet repaid, plus the accumulated interest on that money?
The passage of what act caused Congress and President Clinton to agree to abandon deficit financing and to aim for a balanced budget by the year 2002?
Balanced Budget Act of 1997
What is the power of Congress to regulate interstate and foreign trade called?
What clause, written by the Framers, gives Congress the power: "To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian Tribes"?
What 1824 case was the first involving the Commerce Clause to reach the Supreme Court? It arose out of a clash over the regulation of steamboats by the State of New York, on the one hand, and the Federal Government, on the other.
Gibbons v. Ogden
What was the name of Robert Fulton's steamboat?
In 1807, the Clermont made its first successful run up the Hudson River. What was the starting point and destination of this trip?
New York City to Albany
What man gained a permit for steamboat navigation between New York City and New Jersey because of Fulton's monopoly?
What man, operating with a coasting license from the Federal Government, began to carry passengers on a line that competed with Ogden?
It is on the basis of the commerce power that what act prohibits discrimination in access to or service in hotels, motels, theaters, restaurants, and in other public accommodations on grounds of race, color, religion, or national origin?
Civil Rights Act of 1964
In what 1964 case did the Supreme Court uphold the prohibition of the use of commerce power to discriminate?
Heart of Atlanta Motel v. United States
What act made it a federal crime for anyone other than a polic officer to possess a firearm in or around a school?
Gun-Free School Zone Act of 1990
What 1995 Supreme Court case struck down the Gun-Free School Zone Act of 1990?
United States v. Lopez
What is any kind of money that a creditor must by law accept in payment for debts called?
What were the new national notes called? At first, they could not be redeemed for gold or silver coin at the Treasury.
What "Continental" note, engraved by Benjamin Franklin, was issued to finance the American Revolution? (1776)
One third dollar
What early American coin depicts a woman representing Liberty on the face and a laurel wreath on the reverse? (1834)
United States half cent
With metal badly needed for the Civil War, Congress issued this "Greenaback", the first paper currency since the Continental? (1861)
$10 demand note
What note, redeemable for silver, features George Washington's wife?
$1 silver certificate
In what case did the Supreme Court say that "to coin" meant to stamp metal and so the Constitution did not authorize paper money?
Hepburn v. Griswold
In what 1871 case did the Supreme Court change its mind about its ruling that the Constitution did not authorize money? In this case, it held the issuing of paper money as legal tender to be a proper use of the currency power.
Legal Tender Cases
In what 1884 case did the Supreme Court change its mind about its ruling that the Constitution did not authorize money? In this case, it held the issuing of paper money as legal tender to be a proper use of the currency power.
Juliard v. Greenman
What is the legal proceeding in which the bankrupt's assets - however much or little they may be - are distributed among those to whom a debt is owed called?
In what field does the National Government have the greatest powers?
Who can declare war?
What are written grants of power authorizing private persons to outfit vessels to capture and destroy enemy vessels in time of war called?
letters of marque and reprisal
Letters of marque and reprisal are forbidden by international law by what declaration? The United States honors this rule.
Declaration of Paris, 1856
Congress claimed the power to restrict the use of American forces in combat in areas where a state of war does not exist with the passage of what resolution?
War Powers Resolution of 1973
What is the process by which citizens of one country become citizens of another called?
Who is generally credited as the founder of the present-day postal system?
What is the exclusive right of an author to reproduce, publish, and sell his or her creative work called?
In what office are copyrights registered?
Copyright Office in the Library of Congress
What grants a person the sole right to manufacture, use, or sell "any new and useful art, machine, manufacture, or composition of matter, or any new and useful improvement thereof" and is good for up to 20 years?
What office in the Department of Commerce administers patent laws?
The Patent and Trademark Office
Where is the Patent and Trademark Office located?
Department of Commerce
In what 1991 case did the Supreme Court hold that such "factual compilations" as telephone directories "lack the requisite originality" for copyright protection?
Feist Publications, Inc. v. Rural Telephone Service Co.
What kind of intellectual property protects useful processes, machines, articles of manufacture, and compositions of matter? (ex: fiber optics, computer hardware, medications)
What kind of intellectual property protects works of authorship, such as writings, music, and works of art that have been "tangibly expressed" - that is, in some way published, written, recorded, or made? (ex: books, film, video games)
What kind of intellectual property prohibits the unauthorized use of new, original, and ornamental designs for manufactured articles? (ex: the look of an athletic shoe, a bicycle helmet, Star Wars characters)
What kind of intellectual property protects certain invented or discovered plant varieties? (ex: hybrid tea roses, Silver Queen corn, Better Boy tomatoes)
What kind of intellectual property protects words, names, symbols, sounds, or colors that distinguish goods and services? These may be renewed forever, as long as they are being used in business. (ex: roar of lion in MGM movies, three-peat)
What kind of intellectual property is information that companies keep secret to give them an advantage over their competitors? (ex: recipe for Coca-Cola, recipe for KFC)
What agency, now known as the National Institute of Standards and Technology, was created in 1901 in the Commerce Department and keeps the standards for weight and measure?
National Bureau of Standards
What is the National Bureau of Standards now called?
National Institute of Standards and Technology
What is the inherent power to take private property for public use called? The Federal Government may acquire property by exercising this.
What amendment restricts the government's use of the power of eminent domain with these words: "nor shall private property be taken for public use without just compensation"?
What term means "assigns to a particular use"?
What clause in the Constitution gives Congress the power to: "To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers and all other Powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the United States, or in any Department or Office thereof"?
Necessary and Proper Clause
What is the nickname for the Necessary and Proper Clause? (because it has been stretched so far and made to cover so much over the years)
In 1790, who was Secretary of the Treasury and urged Congress to set up a national bank?
What 1890 act regulated monopolies and other practices that limit competition?
Sherman Antitrust Act
What 1935 act protected the right of labor unions and workers to engage in collective bargaining?
In 1818, what state placed a tax on all notes issued by any bank doing business in the State but not chartered by the State legislature?
Who was the Second Bank's cashier that purposely issued notes on which no tax had been paid?
In what 1819 case did the Supreme Court hold that the Constitution need not expressly empower Congress to create a bank?
McCulloch v. Maryland
Who wrote the Supreme Court's opinion in the McCulloch v. Maryland case?
Chief Justice John Marshall
In 1947, what was established as a separate branch of the military?
U.S. Air Force
What 1956 act provided federal funds to build a national highway system?
Interstate Highway Act
In what 1987 case did the Supreme Court uphold the law that cuts federal highway funds to States that fail to set 21 as minimum drinking age?
South Dakota v. Dole
In what 1995 case did the Supreme Court reject the federal law establishing gun-free zones near schools?
United States v. Lopez
What is a principle or fundamental policy called?
In early December 1996, who argued before the U.S. Supreme Court on the merits of the Brady Act, which allows a police background check on people seeking to buy handguns?
Acting Solicitor General Walter E. Dellinger III
What act allows a police background check on people seeking to buy handguns?
Who curtly informed Dellinger that the Supreme Court of the United States did not base its rulings on straw polls after Dellinger spoke about the Brady Act?
Chief Justice William H. Rehnquist
What law professor at the University of Virginia said, "There are enough cases now where I think Congress ought to think of it as a wake-up call"?
A. E. Dick Howard
What chairman of the Senate Judiciary Committee said he is "very happy with these decisions" because they indicate that "we have a Congress that operates under limited and enumerated powers"?
Orrin G. Hatch (R., Utah)
What article gives Congress the power to propose amendments by a two-thirds vote in each house? Congress has done this 33 times so far.
What amendment gave women the right to vote?
In 1972, Congress proposed what amendment that eventually failed the ratification process after a long, divisive battle?
Equal Rights Amendment
What amendment makes it possible for the President to be of one party and the Vice President another?
Who may be called on to elect a President?
House of Representatives
Who must choose a Vice President when no candidate wins a majority of the electoral votes?
What two presidents did the House choose? (1801 and 1825)
John Quincy Adams
Who is the only Vice President that the Senate has had to choose? (1837)
Richard M. Johnson
What amendment provides for the filling of a vacancy in the vice presidency?
What is a replacement, someone to fill the vacancy, subject to a majority vote in both houses of Congress called?
What two men were confirmed as Vice Presidents through the process of the 25th Amendment? (1973 and 1974)
What term means to accuse, bring charges?
What term means to judge, sit as a court?
Who has the sole power to impeach?
Who has the sole power to try impeachment cases?
Who presides over the Senate when a President is to be tried?
Who is the only other federal officer ever impeached? He was President Grant's Secretary of War and had been accused of accepting bribes and, although he had resigned from office, was impeached by the House in 1876. He was then tried by the Senate and found not guilty.
William W. Belknap
What two Presidents have been impeached? (1868 and 1998)
What term means to find not guilty?
Who became the nation's 17th President when Abraham Lincoln was assassinated in 1865?
Andrew Johnson became enmeshed in disputes with what group that controlled Congress?
What law did President Johnson violate that triggered his impeachment? This act was passed by Congress over the President's veto in 1867.
Tenure of Office Act
What term means lying under oath?
What term means a formal condemnation of behavior?
In 1974, who resigned in the face of almost certain impeachment?
What term comes from a June 1972 attempt by Republican operatives to break into the Democratic Party's national headquarters in the Watergate office complex in Washington, D.C.?
What media newspaper investigated the Watergate scandal?
What groups conducted official investigations on the Watergate scandal?
Department of Justice
Senate's Select Committee on Presidential Campaign Activities
What was the Senate's Select Committee on Presidential Campaign Activities popularly known as?
Senate Watergate Committee
What government agencies were used for personal and partisan purposes during the Watergate scandal?
Federal Bureau of Investigation
Internal Revenue Service
What group voted three articles of impeachment against President Nixon in late July 1974?
House Judiciary Committee
What is a legal order directing one to appear in court and/or to produce certain evidence called?
Who was the first Cabinet appointment to be rejected by the Senate? He was Andrew Jackson's choice for secretary of the treasury.
Roger B. Taney
Who did Andrew Jackson choose to succeed John Marshall as Chief Justice?
Roger B. Taney
At what Kentucky high school were the December 1997 fatal shootings?
West Paducah High School
Who does the President most often consult for advice on treaties?
Senate Foreign Relations Committee
What amendment guarantees each individual the equal protection of the laws?
A provision of what 1964 act made it unlawful for hotels, motels, restaurants, or any other place of "public accommodation" to discriminate in granting access or providing service because of a customer's race, sex, color, religion, or national origin?
Civil Rights Act of 1964
What was one facility that had regularly refused to rent rooms to African Americans?
Heart of Atlanta Motel
Where was the Heart of Atlanta Motel located? It was close to two State highways and two interstate freeways.
What 1964 Supreme Court case involves a motel owner's right to rent rooms to whomever he pleases and the Civil Rights Act?
Heart of Atlanta Motel, Inc. v. United States
What amendment prohibits the "taking" of property without just compensation?